x is possible to y // x is at least some of y // x is part of y
analogical inference as a background for search; search as a background for proof
problem, end, means objectives, means executions, consolidation
rhetoric as the study of reasoning under external constraint -- time, audience predisposition, media limitations, uncertainties, need for practical action
the Mencius as a study of the existence, extension, and cultivation of common good
heart of compassion -- resisting suffering in others
heart of shame -- resisting being inferior rather than equal to others
heart of courtesy & modesty -- resisting any receiving or taking without merit or desert
heart of right & wrong -- resisting any doing of what is disapprovable
the Mencian account of the heart as a moral sense theory
"The things which are the simplest so long as they are undisputed invariably become the subtlest when once they are disputed." Chesterton
The cleverest proofs are those that open up ways for unclever people to solve problems correctly.
the problem of the novel: finding the pure case without losing the concrete expression
evidence as vectorial
the victory of rational sensibility as essential to the good life
affine geometry & logical quantifiers
Southwell's "Look Home" and mythopoeia
Edwards & Wilberforce on religious affections
Torah establishes and protects itself as a family tradition.
the public sphere as a religious structure
sacramental character as grounding an office of guardianship of Tradition
deus ex machina as plot vs. deus ex machina as spectacle
of any field of human life, to ask, "What will set this in good order?"
-> requires prior question, "What order is found here?"
undesigned coincidences as an argument against dissimulation and mistake
debugging & defective causes
quasi-final & quasi-material causes in mathematics -- these are, properly, formal, but they are formalities in some way analogous to ends or material (mappings, elements, etc.)
-> it is also the case that while math as such is formal, our mathematical work has genuine final and material causes.
possibility of memory as integral to consent
Experiments are instrumental causes.
conflicts of interest & testimonial evidence
sacramental character as form of witness
testimony : sign :: witness : image
just wage as essential to limiting government interventions and manipulations
The just wage is the wage in a just market as established by prudent contracts.
aligning incentives with virtuous activity as the major work of political governance
Rightly ordered loves require properly founded hopes.
preparing the public mind by familiarizing imaginations
priests as caretakers of signs
Reverential attitudes are expressed in signs and symbols.
apostolic succession as an ongoing work of the Holy Spirit
Human liberty always exists within a system of signs.
indicative vs. optative moods of worship
The Church Fathers sometimes teach by definite articulation and sometimes by general atmosphere.
Hume's passions as practical presumptions
pride & humility : the self
love & hatred : other people
joy & sorrow : the probable or certain
fear & hope : the uncertain
desire & aversion : good and bad
will : possibility of achievement
"The mind by an original instinct tends to unite itself with the good, and to avoid the evil, tho' they be conceived merely in idea, and be consider'd as to exist in any future period of time." Hume T 18.104.22.168
human understanding as like recollection of Beatific Vision, but actually anticipatory
Hume's account of direct passions is a structure of human action; indirect passions are a context of human action.
Societies achieve unity through salient acts of harmony.
The sacrament of matrimony is not something that takes place only in secret chambers of the soul but in public, before each other and the Church.
Esther as a type of the Church when favored by the state; Judith as type of the Church when dealing solely with foes
Ruth as a type of the Gentile Church
?: The scope of action of a material object is constrained by the tendency of its optimal transmission.
sexual perversions: through deceit, through violence, through indignity, through excess
Not to have reason is to be such as to be able to belong to another.
Aesthetics is normative in a different way from the way ethics is normative. It is common good that makes the difference. This is a principle of practical reason derived from the first: The beautiful is to be sought, done, and made; the ugly to be avoided. This is not an obligation but merely a principle guiding practical reasonableness. The reason it is not obligatory is precisely that it does not bring in the idea of common good or care for a community.
In the creation of Man God makes man and woman in His image and gives them dominion; he also makes them fit mates for each other and sets them to care for the garden, set apart for them, in which there is the tree of life. Because they sin, he exiles them from the garden and guards it with the angel that they may never return, but clothes them in mercy. In the re-creation, God creates man and woman in His image (Baptism) and gives them dominion (Confirmation). He makes them fit mates caring for the garden (Matrimony) and seals the garden, set apart for them, by angels (Orders; cp. Revelation); in this garden is found the tree of life (Eucharist). Because they sin, he provides a means to return (Reconciliation) and out of his mercy clothes them with glory (Unction).
sacrament applied to reason -> liturgical commonwealth & temporal power
sacrament in itself -> spiritual power
"Why is not the principle of generation atheistic, if that of development is?" Newman to J Walker 22 May 1868, on evolutionary theory
the convergence of analogies as a key to classification
Even nonsacramental marriages are consecrations; marriage is eminently a practice of setting-apart.
The form of a sacrament is meaning expressed in sensible sign, and the matter is sensible sign with meaning appropriate to form.
the Church itself as divine ordinance
Penalties and benefits bestowed by the masses are necessarily haphazard.
humor as structured by ethos, logos, & pathos
Absolutely to separate human learning from Christian doctrine is to show contempt for God's providential work in human society.
"What is an Axiom at one stage of our knowledge is often anything but an Axiom at an earlier stage." Charles Dodgson
In every sacrament we find God as principle, sign as expression, and grace as gift given from God through sign.
creation : apostles :: providence : bishops
Those who repent nothing grow never.
Minor ideas when held widely, with whatever diverse or varying commitment, have major effects on the course of society.
Tradition connects us both to the dead and to the unborn.
the intimate connection of play and beauty
Human beings experience nothing without experiencing it as involving tendencies.
the tendencies implicit even in Hume: galley effect, determination of mind to pass between causes & effects, propensity to unite experiences into one, etc.
-> Hume has no way to guarantee that they are purely in the mind, because of his complicated issues with perception/object distinction
the power, of promises kept, to ennoble
All argument is at least fragmentary story.
chesed : light; gevurah : division of waters; tiferet : water, land, plants; netzach : signs in heaven; hod : birds, sea-creatures; yesod : man; malkhut : sabbath
Indulgences indicate that we do not merely engage in penitential practice in isolated ways but as a community and on prior foundations.
indulgences as addressing the problem of how to maintain the faith of martyrs and confessors under conditions in which martyrdom and confessorship are unlikely
indulgences as a system of forensic justification, although not solely such
the merits of the saints as the medium by which the merits of Christ are applied
reflection on purgatory as itself penitential practice
sacramentalia and the poetics of expressing the sacramental sign
All of the old pre-Socratic conceptions of matter have counterparts in political philosophy.
Platonic recollection "as the awakening or resuscitation of the consciousness of the divine image in our souls" (Schlegel)
two primary functions of useful scholarship: collection of dispersed evidence, interesting solutions to particular problems
Christian power in the world as the power of the still, small voice
system, deduction, model, procedure
analogy, invention, symbol, story
conceptual unity, articulation, intuition, form of coherence
action, prudential assessment, plan, character
Pragmatic approaches have an inherently conservative aspect.
PSalm 78 and tradition
The Church is one, holy, catholic, and apostolic in part as witnessing to what is unifying, universal, sent from God, and holy.
private revelations as suggestive indications capable of being raised to probabilities by appropriate confirmations
The obedience of love finds new ways to obey.
Festivity enters prudential practice through gratitude and hope.
the Symposium as the philosophical counterpart of a satyr play
Xenophon does more than Plato to emphasize the importance of the memory of Socrates.
"nothing forced can ever be beautiful" (Xenophon)
filial piety toward the Church Fathers and the Apostles
Transforming society requires a good grasp of its teleologies.
The modern impulse is to take every fruitful good and reduce it to subjective satisfaction by rendering it sterile.
A marriage has its own sort of entelecheia.
the heart of society: comradeships of understanding and love
deus ex machina as a natural form of anagnorisis