Suppose a contingent being exists. Then it is a contingent state of affairs that it exists. Suppose a contingent being that could exist does not. Then it is a contingent state of affairs that it does not. Since for any contingent being, it exists or does not, if contingent beings are possible it is necessary that there are contingent states of affairs.
Tiresias as figure of the philosopher
eucharist & angelic sacrifice (cf. Albertus Magnus on Mass, and also Honorius)
the rhetoric of televised politics as concerned with prediction and gaffe
- someone should do a study of scientific rediscoveries
foraging, farming, fabrication
3D printing as the miniaturization of fabrication
negotiation with one's self (discursive reason, esp. in practical matters, often has this aspect)
appropriateness of actions to immortality
the being-in-God and the being-in-human-life of the Chruch
being-in-God, being-with-God, being-for-God
Our sympathy with the human will of Christ in its submission to His divine will unites us with the latter
Jn 6:38 on monothelitism
Orthopraxis is the theological virtues working outwardly. Orthodoxy is the theological virtues working inwardly.
∀ and ∃ as modal operators for counting operations
Envy often mimics righteous indignation.
Basics of Schleiermacher: The sense of freedom and the sense of dependence are common to all experiences of acting and being acted upon, respectively, that belong to self-consciousness. The sense of absolute dependence accompanies our activity as a whole and is simultaneously a sense of not being absolutely free. God is the other term of the sense of absolute dependence and our consciousness of this sense becomes consciousness of relation to God, especially as this sense becomes articulated and expressed in reflective self-awareness during devotional moments of life. God is not given in experience; rather, what is given is our utter dependence on another.
A 'truthmaker', to fulfill its function, must be a union of being and possibility of being understood. that is to say, talk of truthmakers is just a way to talk about being insofar as it can be understood.
sense of dependence
sense of comparative insignificance
sense of inability to grasp
Crucifixion of the understanding is pointless unless there is a resurrection in greater glory.
sense of wonder -> notion of wisdom itself
Translation is a stretched elastic cord.
Some scientific ethics are conducive to progress toward truth and some are not. This is straightforward fact; honesty and reasonableness are non-negotiables of inquiry. But this has implications few have traced.
The most convenient units of a field arise from its practice, not directly from nature. Since its practice is inquiring practice, this does not imply that they are fictional (although the units themselves could be, considered solely on their own). But even with units carving up the real world in real ways, to which science tends, it is the practices of scientists that make these in particular salient.
the scientific practice of physics and the assumption of downward causation
Out of His mercy, we may repent and through repentance receive mercy.
The nine particles of Fraction in the Mozarabic Mass: Incarnation, Birth, Circumcision, Apparition (i.e., Baptism), Passion, Death, Resurrection, Glory, Kingdom.
Note Descartes AT 7:90, 15-16 // PP IV sect 207, VIII-i, 329, 8-9 (see Marion on this)
the intrinsically iconographic character of charity
icons as "the brilliance of the visible" (Marion)
image in a mirror vs image through a window
"Love doesn't pretend to know, it postulates its own giving without restriction." (Marion)
"Theology cannot aim at any other process than its own conversion to the Word."
Ascension removes a lesser presence of Christ for the sake of a higher presence of Christ.
institution : Passion :: epiclesis : Pentecost
"Transubstantiation...has the merit of clearly marking the unbridgeable difference between the divine Other and ourselves." (Marion)
the stupidity-likeness of laziness
Noah's Ark and the family as hope
Spaemann's futurum exactum argument ("Rationality and Faith in God")
(1) To say about something that it is now is at the same time to say that it will have been.
(2) Therefore the present remains as the past of the future present.
(3) The enduring reality of the past must be due to a consciousness taking up all things past and present.
(4) This we call God.
To apologize is to accept a social punishment. There are times one must, morally speaking, apologize, just as there are times you must simply face the consequences of your deeds. But it is baffling when people talk about apologizing as if it did not make your social position worse. To apologize is nothing other than to concede the point that people are right to demand some penalty from you; it is to bow your head for the blow.
[William of Sherwood]
signification: presentation of the form of something to the understand
supposition: ordering of the of something under something else
copulation: ordering of the understanding of something over something else
apellation: that with respect to which what the term signifies can be predicated
◇ | □
possible | necessary
posterior | prior
ab alio | non ab alio
relative | absolute
secundum quid | simpliciter
propter aliud | propter seipsum
by participation | by essence
potential | actual
composite | simple
mutable | immutable
finite | infinite
effect | efficient
exceeded | exceeding
accident | substance
diverse | same
unequal | equal
finitum | finiens
many | one
exemplate | exemplar
-- Each pair may be taken correlatively or oppositively (one would, of course, need generalized versions of some, e.g., not in another / in another for substance/ accident)
-- What are the most basic pairs, and which reduce to others?
-- What modal maxims apply to each pair? What are the analogies? What disanalogies arise, and why?
-- What implications does the above have for various arguments for God's existence?
-- How does all of this reflect on yet other ◇/□ pairs?
-- Does each of the pairs admit of a per se/ per accidens distinction of some kind?
modes of revelation
- according to moving and being moved (cp. inspiration)
- according to causing and being caused (cp. infusion)
- according to participation (cp. theosis)
- according to governing and being governed (cp. law)
--> What kinds of revelation correspond to the Third Way? (mediated, perhaps?)
--> Are there others according to the pattern of other arguments to God?
--> Are there arguments to God corresponding to every theology of revelation, or at least associated modes of such arguments? (natural theology and the abstract structure of revelation)
--> Can an exhaustive list be made for each, i.e., how many specific examples of kinds of revelation correspond to each?
Good books should be read many times in companionship with many different books, for books read in proximity bring out highlights in each other.
the error of confusing urgency with normativity
faith --> Christ as Truth
hope --> Christ as Way
love --> Christ as Life
diagram: sign that is drawn image of what is signified
testimony: effect that is verbal image of cause
The Church is known in her sacraments.
When people speak of the sacrament of baptism extending beyond the Church, they are speaking in a qualified sense either of baptism or of the Church.
There are many ministries only belonging intrinsically to the character of orders in which others can be involved by instrumental participation. Exactly how this works, or what the instrumental ministry is in its nature, varies according to ministry, but this participation is clearly important to the very nature of sacrament. (It really is a sacrament of ordering and setting in sacramental order.)
The a priori connection between testimony and reality is obviously not rigorous necessity, but it does not follow from this that there is no such connection, nor that there is no indirect or broader necessity involved. (For instance, there may be, by necessity, a limited number of possible links, each with specific conditions.)
To consider: A carefully drawn diagram presumptively establishes what it seems to establish, where there is no specific reason to think this is illusory.
--> Obviously a question here is how the diagram establishes what it does, and the conditions for that.
While it obviously can be important, trustworthiness plays less of a role in actual evaluation of testimony than you would expect from much philosophical discussion of testimony.
Note that in the Letter to a Young Widow, Chrysostom argues that the shining of Moses and the Transfiguration of Christ are both 'tokens and obscure indications' of the glory of the resurrection body.
Austin: In saying, 'I know', we give our word, we give our authority for saying what we do.
verdictives and the sacrament of reconciliation
Outside of verdictives, Austin's classifications of performatives don't seem very helpful.
Austin's infelicities and mishandling of sacraments.
(A1) There must exist an accepted convention.
(A2) The person speaking must be appropriate to the act.
(B1) The procedure must be executed by all participants correctly.
(B2) The procedure must be executed by all participants completely.
(L1) Where procedure involves thoughts and feelings, they must be had.
(L2) The person must conduct themselves appropriately in response.
If not A or B = MISFIRE; if not L = ABUSE; Not A = Misapplication; not B = invalidity and errors
Sacraments are sui generis speech acts; for one thing, they have a performative efficacy entirely different from other performatives.
Calvin's metaphor of sacrament as seal seems to overlook (1) the fact that it is the seal that gives the writing authority and (2) seals have in fact worked as expression of authority simply in themselves. (Institutes 4.14.5)
The sacraments "make us more certain of the trustworthiness of God's Word" by attesting God's benevolence and love "more expressly than by word". (Institutes 4.14.6)
emanatio intelligibilis // sacramental emanation
verbum insitum (incomplexum): Christ :: verbum prolatum (complexum) : sensible sign :: verbum intus prolatum : efficacious sacramental form
Each sacrament is an obscure representation of the Incarnation, or, perhaps more accurately, a representation of the Incarnation under some particular aspect.
verbum as knowing with love
a word proceeds and manifests
notitia is essential to the word, amor is concomitant to the word
creatures in the Word // saints in the Book of Life
Philosophical eclecticism is a sign of an immense amount of work to be done and not enough resources to do it, leading to imperfect assimilation, transformation, and integration
Pascendi dominici gregis as an attack on empiricism as a universal position (i.e., not empiricism in a domain but globally)
The good investigated in ethics has always been more than just good attainable in some degree by human effort, for investigating the latter requires contextualizing it.
A teacher doe snot for the most part tell a pupil what he ought to do on the basis of what the pupil wants to do, but on ends appropriate to the problematic of the situation.
HoP is ideal for people of affable temperament and rebellious mind
unordered pair as weakest form of 2-◇
◇ and unordered list
the four forms of comfort in the anointing of the sick: courage, patience, hope, communion
Thebes as symbol of boundary-breaking in Greek tragedy
"While faith provides the basis for works, the strength of faith only comes out in works." Leo
traditions in the mode of cultivation, of renovation, of nostalgia
Plato's myths as defenses of philosophy
Note that Cicero's criticism of divination in De Div is analogous to Platonic criticisms of sophistry.
the perpetual issue of claims of expertise not grounded in understanding
the purgatorial character of love
love as setting boundaries to evil
matrimony : communal :: unction : individual