strophic vs stichic translation of poetry
The author plays a role in interpretation of texts, because classification of texts is partly authorial: that Timaeus and Laws are by Plato identifies a kind of mutual relevance, and our inteprretations of Aristotelian texts would necessarily shift if we discovered that the Physics was actually by Theophrastus. If we toy with authorial factors in classification, Borges-like, we get different interpretations.
Authority is preparation for reasoning.
The harmless perverse is more to be pitied than condemned.
incidental vs formal education
formal education requires title:
intrinsic title -- parents, child
extrinsic title -- others
strong rationalism : exaggerated realism :: weak rationalism (traditionalism) : nominalism/conceptualism
Middlemen being due to necessity, they are eliminated by the rise of new feasibility.
1 Cor 6:9-10 and intrinsically immoral acts: Veritatis Splendor 81
Ubaghs adapts Reid's attack on representation to argue for ontologism. (Essay II Ch. viii)
NB wrt to the possibility of (quasi-)potential parts of sacraments that early Orthodox lists often treat the seven (or whatever number) as genera or quasi-genera; so, for instance, baptism might be treated as including baptism proper and Epiphany water.
sacrament -- candidate quasi-potential parts (satellite sacramentals)
baptism -- holy water, exorcism, blessed salt, baptismal anointing?, funerals?
chrismation -- baptismal anointing?, royal coronation
orders -- religious consecration, minor orders, footwashing?
eucharist -- blessed bread, relics
penance -- indulgences, Lenten ashes
unction -- holy oils, funerals?
matrimony -- domestic blessings, domestic shrines, betrothals, reaffirmation of vows
-- Where do icons and Scripture fit? My instinct is to say eucharist (as notable in divine liturgy).
Scotus's pactio theory works well for sacramentalia, less so for the central sacraments, which are principally divine acts.
the subjective parts of sacrament: distinguished by rite and sacral language
canon 617 ECCL & the global catechetical authority of Eastern patriarchs
A great deal of sacred doctrine is simply classification.
the grace of the sacrament of matrimony confirms in faith, hope, love, and justice (cf. Maronite crowning rite)
the saint by prayer 'reposing in the relics'
One can build a great many arguments for theism out of the concessions of atheists.
realism : rationalism :: nominalism : empiricism
3 forms of the spread of ideas
(1) Cascade -- sudden/traumatic circumstances provide generally felt pressure in a direction it is easy to move.
(2) Conformity -- acceptance by rest of group provides pressure to be with-group on this as on other things.
(3) Cost -- penalties of other positions become too great for too long, creating exhaustion in the resisters.
-- Any of these three may be evidential or relatively evidence-free.
The usual effect and function of evidence is resistance to change. This is obvious in everyday life. Theories of evidence often miss it because they tend to focus on examples of evidential crisis (the move from uncertainty to certainty, flipping from one position to another, evidential evaluation with no prior history).
Every right is an authoritative responsibility.
poetry and warrants for effects (rhyme, line breaks, etc.) -- i.e., actually having reasons for them, or being able to have simple reasons for them that go beyond just 'trying to follow this form'
- as poetry is often written to form (or to get a form), this seems primarily to arise in revision and checking it over (review).
'X is true' and 'X ought to be judged true'
The real presence of the Spirit in baptism forms us as the Body of Christ; the real presence of Christ in communion contributes to the perfecting of that Body.
The Scotist 'signum sensibile gratiam Dei...ex institutione divine efficaciter significant, effectum ordinatum ad salutem hominis viatoris' is arguably right (taken strictly) for matrimony. Think about this.
Both the absolution of penance and the mutual consent of matrimony must be rational orderings to common good by one who has care for it, promulgated -- each in its own way.
Man and woman are the remote matter of the sacrament of matrimony.
Every sacrament gives aliquis ornatus animae; this is a kind of assimilation to Christ. In some cases this is delible and in some not.
That the seven great sacraments are moral causes can be granted; but this seems inadequate to explain them, being sufficient to explain (say) holy water or blessed rosaries but not the eucharist.
Attempts to explain the remarks of Church Fathers on baptismal water solely in terms of moral causation are utterly unconvincing; and as it cannot explain the eucharist adequately either, and these are the two pillars of the sacramental economy, it seems some notion of 'physical' or natural causality is in fact necessary. The other character sacraments will follow baptism.
The fact that the whole sign does not exist at once is a red herring; it would, if it were a real problem, be a problem for transubstantiation and baptism -- again, the moral-only account makes the former impossible and only dubiously fits the sayings of the Fathers on either. And reviviscence is useless as an objection when considering the character sacraments -- which alone give something that would explain it. Matrimony is nto the wedding ceremony but the consent under the right conditions; and the suggestions that there is reviviscence for penance and unction are implausible. 'Relatively incapable of repetition' is not 'incapable of repetition' and is thus irrelevant to reviviscence.
Unction gives an ornatus animae, like all sacraments, but it is not a 'quasi-character' as some have claimed. The restriction on repetition is obviously to prevent abuse, and is no more a sign of a 'quasi-character' than the fact that we do not churn out consecrated hosts through the whole Mass.
The objection of some, that the sacramental character does not produce grace is true as to original reception; but it is grace that unfolds and this unfolding entirely explains the reviviscence. Further, if you do not hold this, you don't get reviviscence, because it is no longe rthe baptism that is the means for the very reasons the moral-only advocates wish to argue against the natural position. But baptism is the means, so there must be an actual connection to the actual baptism, one that pertains to the baptism in and of itself. (Otherwise reviviscence is not really different from baptism by desire.)
The reviviscence of the character sacraments and of matrimony is not an issue -- they have something ongoing that acts under proper conditions. But penance and unction seem to be such that, strictly speaking, it makes no sense: you can have the grace 'revived' only insofar and in the way you can receive the grace by God's benevolence without the sacrament. (With eucharist, it may be more like receiving the graces by being in the presence without actually communing.)
An athlete may win honors for his city; thus one may merit for others.
St. Peter Damian's 12 sacraments (Sermo 69)
baptismatis, confirmationis, unctio infirmorum, consecratio pontificis, inunctio regis, dedicatio ecclesiae, confessionis, canonicorum, monachorum, eremitarum, sanctimonialium, nuptiarum
-- it's clear that this is not complete because the eucharist is not listed! (Damiani includes it as a chief sacrament at Opusc 6 Liber qui dicitur Gratissimus 9)
Bernard and Ambrose both reckon the washing of the feet as a sacrament.
The swiftness of diffusion of the septenary enumeration of the major sacraments, once laid out, and the firmness with which it established itself, East and West, clearly shows it to capture and clearly articulate something real and important about the sacramental economy.
The liturgy is the ordinary means of teaching for the ordinary magisterium.
The religious signs of the pre-Abramic period are human prayers to which God might respond, and not divine promises.
Sacraments of Old Law: (1) Circumcision (2) Sacraments of Election (e.g., Passover, sacrifices) (3) Sacraments of purification (e.g., rites of purification) (4) sacraments of consecration.
- (1) is a type of Baptism; (2) of Eucharist; (3) of Penance; (4) of Orders. Aquinas takes Confirmation to have no type because it is of fullness of grace but I think it more plausible that this actually shows that (4) is also quasi-type for Baptism and Confirmation: these are all priestly sacraments, and thus not easily typologically distinguished as such. Likewise with unction, which has (3) as quasi-type. Matrimony's type is marriage as a function of nature rather than a sacrament properly speaking. (But think about this last -- is marriage in no way sacramental under Torah? It is certainly recognized as important.)
parts of sacrament
intention : disposition of the Church (including end) :: consent : disposition of minister :: choice : sacramental act itself (matter and form) :: use : sacramental reception :: fruition : effects of grace
sacramental character as deputatio ad divinum cultum
sixfold classification of sacramentalia:
orans, tinctus, edens, confessus, dans, benedicens
crux, aqua, nomen, edens, ungens, iurans, benedicens
-- both of these seem better as selections of eminent sacramentals than as general classifications
the threefold classification:
(1) consecratio (benedictio constitutiva)
(2) benedictio invocativa
(3) adiuratio daemonum
Note that sacramentals are properly acts, and objects only insofar as they are part of those acts.
effects of invocative sacramentals
(1) manifestation as signs (in themselves)
(2) forgiveness of venial sins (as prayers of true contrition)
(3) remission of temporal punishments (as prayers of ardent love or as indulgenced prayers)
(4) bestowal of actual graces (as prayers with the whole church)
(5) material benefits insofar as appropriate (as prayers of petition)
-- Note that all of these are also effects of major sacraments, qua prayers.
consecrations : character sacraments and matrimony :: benedictions : eucharist, penance, and unction
NB that Suarez says that priests baptizing under emergency conditions are baptizing on the basis of their baptismal rather than their ordinational character.
Baptism does not confer a metaphorical priesthood but a real priesthood of reception.
elevation of baptism in Christ's baptism // elevation of matrimony at Cana
-- the Commission is not institution but as it were a handing over or tradition, with instruction
'Baptism by unbelievers' seems simply to be, at most, public baptism of desire.
epiphenomenalism // occasionalism
immaculate conception // baptism of desire
The traditio instrumentorum signifies the meaning of the impositio manus; this function may be served by other things.
The tendency to treat traditio instrumentorum as essential orders arose from excessive assimilation of major orders to minor orders.
ordinary means, ordinary magisterium: liturgy
extraordinary means, ordinary magisterium: synod
ordinary means, extraordinary magisterium: ecumenical council
extraordinary means, extraordinary magisterium: papal definition
four forms of penance: private, canonical, public, solemn
Penances today are usually penitential redemptions -- exchanging communion-focused extended penance with other good works. The natural penance, so to speak, is recusal from communion for an appropriately extended time while one undergoes a relevant penitential discipline; this gets exchanged for prayers or (in earlier times) almsgiving -- the latter was phased out due to abuses, leaving only prayers.
Absolution is not something that stands apart on its own but includes the acts of those who are absolved, at the very least by reference; the absolution is the form of the sacrament. The only good argument otherwise is the case of the unconscious. (Appealing to absolution itself fails for the above reason, and appealing to the minister fails because the minister gives the form.) There seems good reason to take absolution of the unconscious dying as conditional, though.
Perfect contrition must be
(1) internal: with sincere resolve to amend
(2) universal: covering all sins
(3) supernatural: grounded in faith, hope, and love
(4) sovereign: recognizing sin as the greatest evil (i.e., not treating other evils as worse)
The four legitimate motives of contrition generally (Trent)
(2) recognition of sin's turpitude
(3) fear of hell and punishment
(4) fear of losing heaven
The latter three are typically found in attrition, but the first may also be, when it is imperfect.
Validity of indulgences depends on proper authority and just cause, and (according to some, plausibly) proportion.
Gioberti's aesthetic formula: The Sublime creates and contains the Beautiful.
(created by dynamical sublime, contained in mathematical sublime)
-- We might adapt this slightly and say, "The effects of sublime causation are beautiful, the parts of sublime context are beautiful."
"Every truth is full of mysteries which is to say that it contains a great number of other truths that escape, partly or entirely, our knowledge." Gioberti
Every argument for the immateriality of the soul analogizes to a design argument. (But whereas we have intimate knowledge of the starting point of the former, this is not always true of the latter, creating asymmetries.)
possible, verismilar, true
true, necessisimilar, necessary
(necessisimilar might plausibly work like 'at least mostly')
the history of philosophy as a concrete universal
Eucharist nourishes faith, increases hope, and strengthens charity. (Prayer after Communion, First Sunday of Lent.)
the internal subsidiarity of the body and bodily integrity
The proper functioning of checks and balances requires a general expectation -- it does not have to be universal -- of deference and a general custom of making a show of deference.
the act of refusing to believe
faculties as powers instrumental to wholes
explanation and Box-maximization
since & until // up & down
To assume that an infallible teaching authority is always and only teaching infallibly is like assuming the ability to lift 100 pounds means one only lifts 100 pounds.
accumulating errors in utilitarian calculation
(1) assessment of past in memory
(2) assessment of future by anticipation
(3) comparison across different experiencers
"...each great physical idea means a further advance toward the emancipation from anthropomorphic ideas." Planck
The shorter one's historical memory, the less it means to talk about progress.
A compatibilist can have no reason for rejecting doxastic voluntarism.
Not all acts of understanding can be reduced to judgment.
Kant's categories differ from Aristotle's because the former are concerned with judgments and the latter with terms.
Kant sees concepts solely as ways of unifying presentations and explicitly claims the mind can do nothing with them except judge; thus a concept is just an instrument of judgment for him.
We judge in order that we may form better concepts, and we reason in order that we may form better judgments.
cause - force, action, undergoing
community - presence, resistance
modality - arising, passing away, change
(derivative concepts that Kant explicitly meantions)
One's communications should be useful or beautiful.
John 9:7 more or less demands that the Pool of Siloam be seen as an icon of Baptism
Zech 13:1 and baptism