For the same reason that Carnap relativizes observability to organs of an organism, he should also relativize it to instruments.
Russell's 'supreme maxim in scientific philosophising' amounts to this: fictions are to be substituted for evidence.
Stipulative definitions are always for a purpose, and to be judged thereby.
The internal structure of a method is neither analytic nor empirical.
We can infer from as-if assertions just as well as from real assertions.
"All imperatives are formulae of a practical necessitation." Kant
"An obligation implies not that an action is necessary merely, but that it is made necessary; it is not a question of necessitas, but of necessitatio. Thus, while the divine will is, as regards morality, a necessary will, the human will is not necessary but necessitated."
"Every imperative expresses the objective necessitation of actions which are subjectively contingent."
exemplar : formal cause :: destiny : final cause
Confirmation of theory is just a form of analogy.
management envelope forms of quasi-property (e.g., shell corporations) and quasi-jurisdiction (e.g., titular see)
The correspondence relevant to truth occurs within our thought, given the nature of thought.
modes of the hopeful: receptive, intrusive, liminal, ambiguous
Sin taxes tend to be punishments of the poor for not choosing the recreations of the rich.
In order to begin its work, a discipline does not need to form a definite conception of the subject matter; definition is built by inquiry. It does, however, require that there be something that can assign terms.
"Everywhere the core of the knowledge process turns out to be a rediscovery." Schlick
In creativity as in all else, nest before egg.
Implicit definitions have to be traced back to reality like any other; they are just at a higher level of abstraction (or signification, if you prefer).
Judgments exist so that concepts can be made.
Schlick's account of judgments should have led him to treat them as a subset of concepts (namely those that are signs of relations as existing). This in turn should have led him to handle impersonalia differently. ('It is snowing' would best be seen as having a single term, snowing, designating a kind of relation, and the judgment be distinguished from the concept of snowing only by signifying the existence of what 'snowing' signifies'.)
regularity theory // preestablished harmony
ludics, artistic technics, and etiquette as being semi-ethical by nature
reason-seeking, reason-demanding, reason-giving
(search, challenge, argument)
'I know A as B' is not equivalent to 'I know that A is B'.
"The task of a sign is to be a representative of that which is designated, to act in its place in some respect or other." Schlick
If I say, 'Concept A is similar (almost like) concept B', the predicate is not part of the definition of the subject (if we aren't talking about shared genus or a relative concept) but similarity between concepts is not determined by sensible experience. In short, not all relations between concepts are definitional, in the sense of being part of the definition of at least one of the concepts, even if it is based on those definitions (e.g., this definitional structure has similarities to that). We see this even more clearly in more complicated cases, e.g., A is more like B than C, where 'more like B than C' is not generally part of how A is defined, although the reason for saying it is due to A's definition.
Perception is always of relations.
People will talk about justice for many reasons; but the people who have the most incentive to talk about justice are the unjust.
conflicts of interest as occasions for temptations to failures of integrity
That we have itches we scratch to satisfy does not imply that we scratch in order to get pleasure from scratching; we scratch in order to address the itch.
We draw our knowledge not from bare sensations but from familiarities.
"Marriage has God for its Author, and was from the very beginning a kind of foreshadowing of the Incarnation of His Son; and therefore there abides in it something holy and religious: not extraneous, but innate; not derived from men, but implanted by nature." Leo XIII
certain kinds of saint patronage // attributed arms
A true insight of the linguistic turn is that progress can sometimes be made by pulling back from the arguments in order to critique the problems or questions.
Every experiment, and every experimental design, has to deal with the distinction between the real and the unreal.
In pre-philosophical thought, there is no clear recognition of time as a condition of the real.
The principle of noncontradiction is a principle of both analysis and synthesis.
"A sympathetic understanding of a philosophical system...consists in picturing to oneself just exactly what sense is assumed within that system by each question or assertion of everyday life and science." Schlick
"We see again and again that the positivist directs his critique against a specially constructed concept of the thing-in-itself and then supposes that he has refuted the general idea of such a thing."
"There is no sense organ that senses time; the entire self experiences it."
Concepts are constructed takes on the real.
The phenomena can only be the noumena appearing.
Mathematical concepts must be taken to be such that they can apply to reality. But that they can in fact apply is not a matter of definition (you cannot get it by bare stipulation in the concept itself) nor is it a matter of experience (because many such concepts go well beyond anything we have experienced in actual cases to which they apply).
Conventions may be more or less appropriate.
How to apply a definition is not generally incorporated into the definition.
That something can be is at the same time evident in itself and about the real world.
felt reception vs felt resistance accounts of cause, the external world, etc.
Morale is a necessary part of military strategy because it is directly relevant to loyalty and obedience.
While Dilthey is right that it is the nature of life to attempt to fill each moment with value, it would be an error to conclude that early years are not means to mature years. This is precisely what we take to be the promise of youth.
When people talk about 'following where the argument leads' they tend to assume that it leads in one way and in one direction. But in fact, given that one may respond to arguments in many ways (ponens, tollens, suspend judgment while checking against other things, etc.), when we follow an argument we do so out of our entire spiritual background, and people for whom that background is different -- different experiences, different educations, different practical and moral goals -- may well take the same argument to lead in very different directions.
Christ's Baptism is not in the genus of our baptism, but it is the exemplar and template.
Johnson (1960): Both 'No synthetic propositions are a priori' and 'Some synthetic propositions are a priori' would, if true, have to be synthetic a priori truths, in the sense of about the world and such that the contradictory is self-contradictory.
Krishna (1961): Synthetic a priori is required in order to have logical derivations involving empirical truths.
Lambros (1975): Logical positivism has four distinct accounts of necessary truths, each of which is a different kind of denial of synthetic a priori. It is the denial that the a priori can inform about the world (and is instead linguistic) either (a) taking the a priori to be rule or (b) taking the a priori to be propositional; if (b), then either (b1) it is true in virtue of conceptual content or (b2) it is true in virtue of syntactic form; if (b2), either (b2a) absolutely (all languages) or (b2b) relativized to some languages. (a) is derived from Wittgenstein, found in Hans Hahn: Logic is not about objects but wholly about ways of speaking about objects. (b1) of some kind is found in Schlick. (b2a) is a standard reading of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. (b2b) is found in Carnap.
Williams (1938): A convention is a habitual way of behaving, not a proposition; an analytic proposition cannot be a convention. Nor can it be a description of a convention; such descriptions are necessarily synthetic. Nor can ti be a rule, command, resolve, etc.
Beck (1957): 'Analytic' is a logical/linguistic term; 'a priori' is epistemological. They should not be elided even if coextensive. The reasons why some people want to say that a principle is analytic *in a particular body of science* are the *same reasons* Kant held them to be synthetic a priori.
'White is this color', pointing to white, seems to be analytic a posteriori.
necessary synthetic a posteriori propositions (reachable by proper induction)
The rights of the child grow up within the ambit of the rights of the parent.
One: Rv 21:9-10
Holy: Rv 21:11, 22-23, 27
Catholic: Rv 21:24-26
Apostolic: Rv 21:12-21
habitus -> mutually reinforcing habitus among more than one person
- Call the latter a consortium. By cultivating a habitus we make possible a consortium among people with the same or corresponding habitus. Thus you can have consortium among people sharing skills, and consortium among people sharing virtues; perhaps even consortium among people sharing some vices. Friendship of excellence is perhaps the highest consortium contributing to common good and human happiness, but only the most eminent among many consortia that do so. Consortium strengthens and refines habitus (or provides opportunity for act) and makes it more consistently effective on the large scale.
Defending only saints is an excuse not to do much.
For attaining beatitude, two things are required: nature and grace." ST 1.73.1ad1
aptitude : skill :: decency : virtue
"Although there are many causes of anything, one is always the completer, which is cause above all, and it is of this that it is said that knowing is when we understand the cause." Albert, IN Post An 1tr2c1.
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