melka (holy leaven) and the charism of the East
- holy leaven doesn't actually leaven; it is a residue, a material tradition; the Church of the East takes it as essential to the consecration (Eucharist without it is treated as invalid)
- earliest attestation seems to be to Catholicos Yohannan V bar Abgare (900-905); his canonical decrees require two leavenings, one consecrated and one unconsecrated
- the Assyrian theologians parallel the leaven with the Holy Oil of the Apostles used for baptism & only for baptism
Pohle & Preuss object to the sacramentalia hexameter, 'orans, tinctus, edeus, confessus, dans, benedicens' that orans, confessus, and dans are not properly sacramentals, but surely this is to miss the point, which is that there are sacramentals properly dependent on and associated with (And thus traced back or reduced to) these three.
Note that Datta takes the Western tradition of philosophy to be in general a two-pramana tradition.
mind as known by perception, as known by inference, as known by testimony, as known by arthapatta (circumstantial supposition)
What is accredited to us as morally good must be ours, but reason is social, and nothing can be ours without the aid of others.
A service of the heart must be expressed in signs; a service of the heart to God must be expressed in signs as God reveals to be appropriate.
Prayer is not a merely internal ritual, nor is church-going a merely external one.
We may indeed anticipate God's giving of grace because our existence, and that of the whole world, is already a work of grace.
The Notion of Sacrament in General
A. The Need for Something Like Sacrament
--- 1. Fruition and Use
--- 2. Original and Actual Sin
--- 3. The Definition of a Sacrament
B. General Sacrament
--- 1. Christ
--- 2. Church
C. Sacrament Under Natural Law
D. Sacrament Under Old Covenant
E. Sacrament Under New Covenant
F. Major Sacraments
--- 1. Number
--- 2. Institution
G. Minor Sacraments
right-in-some-respect reasons (constitutive) vs. suggestive-of-something-right reasons
Adequacy of propositions to what they are about generally depends on more adequate propositions, which series converges on real definitions.
Philosophical interestingness is always relative to problems within a context of inquiry.
occasional → eclectic → systematic
Materials are sometimes ripe for classification. This 'ripeness for classification' is an important concept for philosophy of classification.
condign and congruous rights
to honor victory with revel
Provocation and outrage are pushed in order to force opinions; in an opinion nation, not having an opinion is itself regarded as resistance.
the danger of confusing apathy and restraint in opining
the modernist confusion of identity with kinship-feeling (connected with its confusion of identity and self-identification)
Every sacrament has aesthetic, ethical, metaphysical, and salvation-historical levels, and at each level it functions as sign and thing.
the ascetic discipline of suspension of judgment
sacraments as rituals of unity
It follows from Russell's account of names and descriptions that the distinction is not one of language used (despite how it is often presented even by Russell) but of the use to which the language is put.
History becomes relevant to causation only by way of some sort of aptitude or memory or stored trace.
dainty & dumpy as aesthetic terms
Even small-t traditions in the Church, if long-term, deserve some respect as the inherited experience of many generations.
rites: (1) background contrast; (2) machinery of rite; (3) acts; (4) standards of acceptability; (5) style of performance
"We must, however, distinguish accurately between three things which are different in this sacrament, namely, the visible form, the truth of the body, and the spiritual power. The form is of the bread and wine; the truth, of the flesh and blood; the power, of unity and charity. The first is the sacramentum et non res, the second the sacramentum et res, the third the res et non sacramentum. The first is sacrament of a twofold res; the second, however, is sacrament of one and res of another; but the third is the res of a twofold sacrament." Innocent III Cum Marthae circa (D 415)
Are occult heretics included in the church?
Yes: Bellarmine (De eccl. mil. 3 ch. 10)
--- Tanquerey (Synopsis Th. Dog. Vol 1. n. 903)
No: Suarez (De fide d9s1nn5.13.18)
--- Molina (Concordia p3q14a13d46n18)
--- Franzelin (Theses de Ecc. Chr. th. 23)
Are manifest material heretics in the church?
Yes: Franzelin (Theses, th. 23)
Are manifest formal heretics in the church?
Yes: Franzelin (Theses, th 22)
--- Tanquerey (Synopsis vol 1 n903-904)
[Cp. Fr. Salaverri, Sacrae Theologiae Summa]
Reconciliation as tribunal of mercy
(1) contrition, confession, satisfaction
laws of nature // world-soul
"Everything is full of signs, and the one who understands one thing on the basis of another is a wise man of sorts." Plotinus (Enneads 2.3.7)
Receiving the heresies of those who suckle at her breast, the Church produces the antibodies, the countervailing factors, to protect those who receive her teaching.
Political reasoning always outruns proof.
Political speech tends to hyperbole, because political speech strives for, and sometimes strains for, an actual effect.
numbing vs. painful distress
"It is impossible to be potentially nothing." Plotinus (Enneads 2.5.1)
"People are generally better persuaded by reasons which they have themselves discovered than by those which have come into the mind of others." Pascal (Pensees 10)
executive power as substantive vs. executive power as management envelope
tripartite powers: ST Supp.32.6
efficacy of sacraments
Baptism: Eph 5:26
Confirmation: Acts 8:17
Eucharist: Jn 6:57ff
Penance: Jn 20:22ff
Unction: Jas 5:14
Orders: II Tim 1:6
Pohle & Preuss argue that sacraments have no physical causality because physical causality
(1) is unprovable: all the grounds for it merely show efficacy, for which moral causality suffices.
--But note that they have to characterize some of the characterizations as 'exaggerations'
--and their surprise and mystery argument (esp. for baptismal water) misses the point: it is not the mysteriousness bu the directness and strength of patristic claims that is relevant.
(2) is unintelligible, because (a) the whole sacramental sign never exists simultaneously
-- this would tell as directly against moral causality
(b) reviviscentia sacramentorum
-- the same argument would tell against moral causality
----- The problem is that Pohle & Preuss assume moral causality is immune to the need for principles required to have any causality at all (action presupposes being, presence, etc.).
patience : unction :: repentance : penance
the sacramental economy springing from each sacrament as having the structure of the Temple
Universalism is a prediction that God will work a moral miracle.
Leo XIII on Scriptural inspiration (Providentissimus Deus)
(1) God inflames the will.
(2) God illumines the intellect.
(3) God supervises the work.
the power of the parent to act vicariously for the child
three works of oil of healing (Testament of Our Lord 1:25)
(1) set free those who suffer
(2) heal those who are sick
(3) sanctify those who return
To treat rituals are primarily expressive of experience is to treat them as epiphenomenal, or at least as passive -- merely done, and not themselves doing. But rituals are experience-forming, experience-guiding, and experience-transforming.
Morality is a condition for consistent cooperation (note that this is not to say that it is consistent cooperation, nor is consistent cooperation the only form of cooperation).
Every story aims at some good.
The genus of the appropriate method for a domain is implicit in the domain itself, but to determine the best in that genus is a matter of difficulty.
Positivisms are always the ghosts of dead metaphysics.
The distinction between 'being' and 'cat' is not merely a distinction between more and less general.
Mill's liberalism depends crucially on a form of skepticism that takes us never to be in a position to judge with certainty.
active violation, encroachment, posture of encroachment
anointing of the sick & non-dread, non-angst
Argument Equivalence and Implication
e.g., [Every dog is a mammal, therefore some dog is a mammal] is equivalent to [Every dog is a mammal, therefore some mammal is a dog]
immaculate conception → immaculate heart → queenship
immaculate conception → perpetual virginity → assumption
(1) the need for tribunals as remedies under law
(2) anticipative vs corrective tribunal
(3) conscience as anticipative tribunal
(4) two kinds of corrective tribunal: tribunal of justice, tribunal of mercy
(5) sacramental tribunal of mercy
(6) tribunal of Christ as both of justice and of mercy
(7) the final judgment
Physical well-being is not a single thing, but more like a vast and ever-changing market of complex trade-offs.
Your liberty does not really extend beyond the bounds of your authority.
socialims & the -ism mistake
the pastward and the futureward faces of the present
as sign of divine ) as sign of higher things ) as formally structure ) as materially found ) as appearing
grace as subsidium (unction), as educative (matrimony), as vocative (confirmation), as consummative (eucharist), as productive of occasions of grace (orders)
It would be more accurate to say that we are 'browned-to appearingly' than 'appeared-to brownly'.
There are, in fact, phenomenal differences between dreaming and waking experiences -- a great many. It's judgment that is different between the two so as to make them hard to take into account.
(1) Consequentialism is inconsistent with strict naturalism.
(2) Consequentialism requires at least a moderately robust conception of abstract objects.
(3) Consequentialism is secularized divine providence.
(4) Consequentialism requires at least a minimal rationalism.
(5) Consequentialism requires a temporally privileged present.
-- 'required' in some of these cases may be practical rather than logical
Without a priori knowledge, we could not assess what would actually be for the *greatest* happiness of the greatest number. The best you could do would be to increase things that we've previously found associated with happiness in the past -- all attempt at *maximization* would be an exercise in stupidity.
Criminal justice reforms tend to overemphasize law reform and underemphasize enforcement reform, which is ultimately self-defeating.
Mammon rules by pretending to serve.
Pantheism confuses sign and signified; because of this, it confuses effect and cause.
It's remarkable how often 'hardcore materialists' treat laws of nature as if they were immaterial agents.
independent oversight, uniform regulation (that there are rules), general incentive (that they are enforced)
Liturgy is an imitation (mimesis) of heavenly prayer.
the eucatastrophe of the altar
Augustine -- baptism of desire - De bapt contr. Don. 4.22
On average, Mercury is the closest planet to every planet.
kinds of nonessential component for a sacrament
(1) means of facilitation
(2) safeguards against abuse
(3) chance incidentals
Mutual regard is the illumination of conversations.
"The most beautiful verses are not the ones with which one is busy all the time. They are the ones that have come all by themselves." Peguy
"nothing that is not first can be simple" Plotinus
probability // degree of overlap
Taj Mahal etc. as common beauty
-- the moral obligation to protect common beauty as part of common good
-- the possibility of sharing in 'being pleased'
The rogue too has his role in the city. (Enneads 3.2)
All temptations are sweet when they are temptations. More than a few are bitter when they are deeds.
mastery of passions as sign of immateriality of the soul (Pascal Pensees 349)
the aleatory aspect of reasoning itself (Pensees 370)
the skeptical ploy: to argue that, because some are extravagant, all might as well be considered so
"networks of counsel and aid" (Andrew Jones)
symbolic logic : philosophy :: rules of perspective : painting
geometric decomposition : drawing :: analysis : philosophy
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