Friday, March 02, 2018

Rough Timeline of Scotland During the Jacobite Risings

Some dates approximate, as is the order of events for a given year.

1687 James VII and II issues the Declaration of Indulgence, first for Scotland, then for England, suspending laws requiring conformity to the Church of England, as well as those requiring religious tests for offices.

1688 James re-issues the Declaration of Indulgence; Anglicans attempt to argue that it is illegal.

A son is born to James in June, thus displacing the heir presumptive, Mary, a Protestant married to William of Orange, and raising the possibility of a Catholic dynasty. English parliamentarians conspire to put Mary, and thus William, on the throne. William invades in November and quickly achieves victory in England at the Battle of Reading.

Early 1689 William forces Parliament to make him joint monarch with Mary by threatening to withdraw his troops.

The Parliament of Scotland passes the CLAIM OF RIGHT, recognizing William and Mary as monarchs.

The Parliament of Ireland meets for its only session in the reign of James (the 'Patriot Parliament') and re-asserts James's right to the Crown of Ireland, thus leading to the War of Two Kings (the Williamite War).

Leisler's Rebellion: News of the Revolution reaches the Dominion of New England, and leads to the Puritans revolting and overthrowing the unpopular James-appointed government there. Leisler will for all practical purposes rule New England until he is executed for treason in 1691.

DUNDEE'S RISING (the first Jacobite Rising) in Scotland
27 July 1689 At the Battle of Killecrankie, Jacobite forces crush pro-William forces, but at heavy cost.
21 August 1689 Jacobites lose the Battle of Dunkeld to the Cameronian Regiment, an army of Convenanter volunteers.

Coode's Rebellion: Puritans in Maryland overthrow the government there and begin to take steps to outlaw Catholicism.

The English Parliament enacts the Declaration of Right (Bill of Rights), and it receives Royal Assent.

1690 Battle of the Boyne in the Williamite War: Jacobites and Williamites fight to a narrow victory for William's forces. The battle was far from decisive, but James flees to France, to the fury of his Irish supporters. The flight could have ended the war, but in the Declaration of Finglas, William demanded harsh terms for surrender, giving the Irish reasons to continue to fight.

1691 Treaty of Limerick in October ends the Williamite War in Ireland.

1692 Massacre of Glencoe: Williamite forces kill thirty-eight men of the Clan MacDonald of Glencoe, and about forty women and children die of exposure in the aftermath, due to the slowness of the MacDonalds of Glencoe to sign the oath of allegiance.

1696 THE JACOBITE PLOT: George Barclay plans an assassination attempt against William, but the plan is discovered before it can be carried out.

*****************

1 May 1707 The ACTS OF UNION unite the kingdoms into Great Britain.

1708 James Francis Edward Stuart (the Old Pretender) sails from Dunkirk with an army, planning to invade by landing somewhere along the Firth of Forth; it fails when the British Navy engages the fleet and the French admiral retreats despite Stuart begging him to land the army.

1714 Death of Queen Anne, the last English monarch of the House of Stuart; she is succeeded by the Elector of Hanover, George I. Power passes from the Tories to the Whigs, who begin presecuting the previous Tory politicians, and the Tory Lord Bolingbroke flees to France, becoming the Old Pretender's Secretary of State. They began planning an invasion of Scotland.

LORD MAR'S REVOLT (also known as the FIFTEEN)
27 August 1715 John Erskine, the Earl of Mar, independently of the Pretender, holds a council of war at Braemar.
6 September 1715 The Earl of Mar lifts the standard for James the Eighth and Third, and the revolt begins in earnest. In response, Parliament suspends Habeas Corpus and promises anti-Jacobite tenants in Scotland that if their landlords are Jacobite, they can have the forfeited property
2 October 1715 The English government manages to nip in the bud a sympathetic rising in western England.
6 October 1715 A sympathetic English rising begins in Northumberland.
22 October 1715 Having (in large measure through a good choice of subordinates) captured almost all of northern Scotland, the Earl of Mar receives a commission from the Pretender.
13 November 1715 Mar's army defeats the Duke of Argyll at Sherriffmuir, but Mar fails to press his advantage and falls back to Perth.
14 November 1715 After intense fighting, the sympathetic rising in Northumberland is defeated at the Battle of Preston.
22 December 1715 The Pretender lands at Peterhead and begins the march to Perth; by the time he reaches Perth on 9 January, the Duke of Argyll has begun to advance with heavy artillery, and the Jacobite army spends the rest of the month in retreat.
4 February 1716 The Pretender leaves Scotland and returns to France.

1 November 1716 The Disarming Act makes it illegal to carry unauthorized weapons in Scotland.

1716 An Anglo-French alliance requires the Stuarts to leave France; they eventually settle in Rome at the invitation of Pope Benedict XIII.

July 1717 The Indemnity Act pardons those who took part in Lord Mar's Revolt except for the MacGregors (including Rob Roy MacGregor).

22 August 1717 The War of the Quadruple Alliance begins, pitting Spain against Britain, France, Austria, and the Dutch Republic. The Spanish begin considering a diversionary invasion of Scotland to draw the powerful British fleet away from the Mediterranean.

THE NINETEEN
11 April 1719 George Keith lands with 300 Spanish soldiers at Loch Alsh, and with the help of the Mackenzies raises a local army. They garrison at Eilean Donan Castle and march on Inverness.
10 May 1719 Three major English warships anchor off Eilean Donan and, after an attempt at negotiation, capture the castle and then shell it into ruins.
5 June 1719 General Joseph Wightman meets the Jacobite army at Glen Shiel, and defeats them with overwhelming firepower. Lord Carpenter recommends that it is not worth the time and effort to hunt down the rebels in the Highlands, on the ground that the swift and conclusive defeat had damaged the Jacobite cause far more than the British government could possibly do.

1721 The Rosses, who had been appointed factors for the forfeited estates of the Mackenzies, try to collect rents, which had not been paid (the Mackenzies had instead continued to send their rents overseas to the clan chief). They are ambushed near Glen Affric, soundly defeated, and agree to give up all claim to the rents. The British government, hearing of the matter, attempts to press the issue by sending a regiment from Inverness; the regiment, under Captain McNeil, is ambushed at Coille Bhan. They win the battle, but, hearing of approaching Mackenzie reinforcements, recognize the futility of the attempt and return to Inverness.

1744 The French back an invasion plan, but it is aborted due to hostile weather; however, war between France and Britain gives Charles Stuart, "Bonnie Prince Charlie", a reason to think conditions still may be favorable.

THE FORTY-FIVE (also known as the YEAR OF CHARLES)
23 July 1745 Charles lands at Eriskay with Irish volunteers and begins gathering local Scottish support.
19 August 1745 Charles raises the standard at Glenfinnan and the uprising begins in earnest.
17 September 1745 Charles and his army enter Edinburgh unopposed, although Edinburgh Castle remains under British control.
21 September 1745 Jacobite army wins the Battle of Prestonpans.
8 November 1745 The Jacobites begin an invasion of England, but disputes about the appropriate policy are already beginning to cause discord in the Jacobite leadership, and support from English Jacobites and the French turns out to be far less than expected.
20 December 1745 The Jacobites return to Scotland. Despite the failure of the expedition, the fact that the army had invaded England raises morale considerably, and volunteers begin to increase.
4 January 1746 Charles reaches Stirling.
17 January 1746 The Jacobites win the Battle of Falkirk Muir but fail to press their advantage.
1 February 1746 The Jacobites are forced to withdraw from the Siege of Stirling Castle.
16 April 1746 The Jacobites lose at the Battle of Culloden.
20 April 1746 Given divisions between Charles and his advisors, and the low level of French support, Charles disbands the army.
27 June 1746 Flora MacDonald helps Charles escape British troops.

1 August 1746 In the aftermath of the Forty-Five, Parliament passes: the Heritable Jurisdictions Act, stripping clan chiefs and hereditary sheriffs of their judicial powers; and the ACT OF PROSCRIPTION, which increases the punishments for unauthorized weapons and makes tartan and kilt illegal.

20 September 1746 Charles returns to France.

June 1747 Henry Stuart becomes a Cardinal in the Catholic Church, widely seen as being an admission of the end of the Stuart cause.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Please understand that this weblog runs on a third-party comment system, not on Blogger's comment system. If you have come by way of a mobile device and can see this message, you may have landed on the Blogger comment page, or the third party commenting system has not yet completely loaded; your comments will only be shown on this page and not on the page most people will see, and it is much more likely that your comment will be missed.