Friday, July 01, 2022

Music on My Mind

 

Gazi 'Dusty' Simelane, "Home". Country music (including the whole country music culture, like line dancing) is hugely popular in Sub-Saharan Africa, and has consistently been so for about fifty years, but African Country is difficult to find outside of Africa, despite often being of extremely high quality. Perhaps this age of streaming will begin changing that. In any case, this is on my mind because there has been some discussion of African Country floating about.

Dashed Off XVI

 "The intelligible is the soul of the sensible as the body of the intelligible is the sensible." St. Maximus

All knowing is through some likening.

Sacred Tradition perfects tradition as grace perfects nature.

The 'post-truth age' has existed since the Fall.

"Reciprocity preserves cities." Aristotle (Politics 1261a32)
"Friendship is the pursuit of a common social life." 1280b38-39

"Even the gods love play." Plato (Cratylus)
"Speech (logos) signifies all things (to pan) and keeps them circulating and always going about."

Hades as sophist vs Hades as philosopher (Cratylus 403a1-404b4)

Cratylus 407b shows that allegorical reading of Homer was common even in Plato's day.

Van Til's predication argument: "on the presupposition of human autonomy human predication cannot even get under way"
"The final point of reference in all predication must ultimately rest in some mind, divine or human. It is either the self-contained God of Christianity or the would-be autonomous man that must be and is presupposed as the final reference point in every sentence that any man utters."

"a combination of means conspiring to a particular end implies intelligence." Dugald Stewart

"Belief in the personality of man, and belief in the personality of God, stand or fall together." George Fisher
"Self-consciousness can only be referred to self-consciousness as its author and source. It can have is ground in nothing that is itself void of consciousness. Only a personal Power above Nature can account for self-consciousness in man."
"Unconditioned being is the silent presupposition of all our knowing."
"The Greek Philosophy was a preparation for Christianity in a threefold way. It dissipated, or tended to dissipate, the superstition of polytheism; it awakened a sense of need which philosophy of itself failed to meet; and it so educated the intellect and conscience as to render the gospel apprehensible, and in many ways, congenial to the mind."
"As the Gospels were for the Church, so they were from the Church."
"The personality of God gives to man his true place. Man is a person, and religion, instead of being a mystic absorption of the individual, is the communion of person with person."

NB that Spinoza explicitly links repentance and free will

Something like sacred Scripture has to be organically grown in a community, not imposed (this distinguishes it from some other kinds of revelation).

the Bible as symbolic Kingdom of God, with the real Kingdom of God its object

Goldwin Smith: virtue, knowledge, and industry as the most general topics of history

'the age of unsettled opinion' (McCosh)

As one goes higher, the relation between idea, as a universal abstract rule, and ideal, as case under the rule, becomes more intimate, converging to God, who is both idea and ideal.

In political disputes, always look to see what you are being forced *not* to defend, due to the need for resources to fight over a topic du jour.

One of the hardest things to learn is not to fight the decoy battle.

physical cause : influence :: moral cause : imputation

Church Militant : Power :: Church Patient : Wisdom :: Church Triumphant : Goodness

occasionalism of sacramental life

Induction is inherently teleological. Suppose a simple enumeration, in which I find that cases 1, 2, 3, etc. have such-and-such feature F. This could be a real pattern, or it could be an accident. What is the difference between a real pattern and an accidental pattern? In the former, what we find is that to which things really tend. The induction principle is not 'the future is like the past' so much as 'in the kind of thing we have experienced there is a tendency to F that will yield F unless some cause intervenes'. (Cp. James Clerk Maxwell on 'The same causes produce the same effects.')

"If the world might have had a cause, then it must have had a cause." Nathaniel Emmons

sex principia as categories for experimental components

A hypothesis requires both accommodation of prior evidence (retrodiction) and prediction because (1) accommodation establishes that the data are not manipulated to fit the hypothesis and (2) prediction establishes the hypothesis is not manipulated to fit the data.

equations as at-least-contingent identities

assumption Box, projection Diamond

The modern world consistently confuses knowing oneself with constructing an authentic brand.

The problem with 'social construction' as actually used is that it is regularly applied to things for which 'construction' is the wrong metaphor.

socially grown vs socially constructed

making up ways to pretend to be righteous

regularity -> disposition -> intelligence

Teleological arguments are not generally based on probability and improbability.

Individual facts cannot be recognized as facts except insofar as they imply laws.

evidence, coherence, endurance, and beauty

Inference to the best explanation is always in light of an end.

"Science both does, and must, make the permanent metaphysical presupposition that the world is non-aberrant." Nicholas Maxwell

Newton's Rule III clearly sets aside intensive qualities because the extensive equalities raise no specter of total diminution even in principle (because they don't admit of intension and remission).
Rule IV is a rule of theory progress.

's Gravesande's pragmatic axiom: "We must look upon as true, whatever being deny'd would destroy civil Society, and deprive us of the Means of living." (He takes this to imply Newton's Rule II and Rule III.)

The problem of induction is usually formulated on the assumption that principles can only be justified deductively or inductively, but the problem with the assumption is that these options are usually too narrowly conceived (in fact there are several kinds of both) and do not include counterfactual suppositions, convergence arguments, pragmatic vindications, or coherence arguments. [Even Carnap notes that past experience is a third and, although in principle he rejects it, synthetic a priori is a fourth.]

deontic justifications of induction

Induction in the abstract requires one principle: that there are universals, not just particulars and groups of particulars.

There is no problem with having an inductive justification of induction or a deductive justification of deduction, as long as these things are taken to be dialectical, not demonstrative. If there were no such things, then we should worry.

Rejection of certain kinds of inductions entails contradictions.

pluralism of rights & pluralism of societies

Human beings can only understand a demonstration by placing it within an appropriate ecology of dialectical reasoning.

experiments as designed changes in designed composites

three aspects of image of God in humanity: dominion, dignity, microcosm
the Jewish prohibitions of murder, adultery, and idolatry as protecting three aspects of human dignity

immediate/intrinsic ends
extrinsic ends or functions: system ends
extrinsic ends or functions: population ends
finables (usefulness for an end)
as-it-were ends

A perpetual problem with experimental study of 'intuitions' is that if you ask a person a question, you get their intuition about *what would answer a question like that*. This is often different from what one wishes to study.

essentially ordered vs accidentally ordered composition

Newton's Third Law as giving a property of 'force' (it is an interactive causing)

mass as acceleration-resistance, as strength of gravitational flux, as strength of interaction with gravitational field, as energy reserve, as source of spacetime curvature, as difference between quantum frequency and wave number
-- Newton's Third implies that active and passive gravitational mass are always proportional; Einstein's general relativity assumes in the equivalence principle that inertial and passive gravitational masses are the same.

the Beatific Vision as the core of filiality

"There is nothing that human malice cannot abuse, since it abuses even God's goodness." Aquinas

purposiveness in the effects -> understanding in the cause

legal tender as a centralizing device

As it is necessary for contingent things either to exist or not to exist, and some contingent things do, some necessary beings must have contingent effects.

Thursday, June 30, 2022

In Marble-Fountained Closes

To One Reading the Morte d'Arthur
by Madison Cawein

O daughter of our Southern sun,
Sweet sister of each flower,
Dost dream in terraced Avalon
A shadow-haunted hour?
Or stand with Guinevere upon
Some ivied Camelot tower? 

Or, in the wind, dost breathe the musk
That blows Tintagel's sea on?
Or 'mid the lists by castled Usk
Hear some wild tourney's glee on?
Or 'neath the Merlin moons of dusk
Dost muse in old Caerleon? 

Or now of Launcelot, and then
Of Arthur, 'mid the roses,
Dost speak with wily Vivien?
Or, where the shade reposes,
Dost walk with stately, armored men
In marble-fountained closes? 

So speak the dreams within thy gaze,
The dreams thy spirit cages,
Would that Romance – which on thee lays
The spell of bygone ages –
Held me! A memory of those days,
A portion of those pages.

Tuesday, June 28, 2022

Linkable Notabilia

 * The "Tea with Tolkien" blog is beginning its Silmarillion Summer

* Mateusz Strozynski, The Joys of Latin and Christmas Feasts: J. R. R. Tolkien's Farmer Giles of Ham

* Brendan Hodge, After Dobbs: Abortion in America by the numbers, at "The Pillar"

* Philip Woodward, Technological Innovation and Natural Law (PDF)

* William Vallicella, Fetal Rights and the Death Penalty: Consistent or Inconsistent?

* After an extensive period of analysis, NASA has determined the proportion of total organic carbon in Mars soil samples from the Curiosity mission. The result is interesting, although not very conclusive; the total organic carbon is roughly on par with the most barren places on earth, a little more than might be expected, but still within the range of what can result from purely inorganic processes.

* Gregory Sadler, A Personalist Aspect of St. Anselm's Platonist Metaphysics (PDF)

* Ruth Boeker, Character Development in Shaftesbury's and Hume's Approaches to Self (PDF)

* Allen Habib, Promises, at the SEP

* John D. Norton, How Analogy Helped Create the New Science of Thermodynamics (PDF)

* Simon Parkin, Who Owns Einstein? The battle for the world's most famous face, at The Guardian.

* Allen Porter, Exercising the Virtues, on the role of physical fitness in the moral life

* Savannah Pearlman, In Tension: Effective Altruism and Mutual Aid, at "The Blog of the APA". One major point that is relevant here is that Effective Altruism is not (as it is often presented by its exponents in popular venues) directly concerned with doing the most good or finding the best way of doing things, but finding the way of doing things that is best according to the best available numbers. Mutual Aid, on the other hand, is concerned with finding many different ways of doing things that are good in many different ways and that are within the practical ability of ordinary people, and its standards are social, not quantitative.

Monday, June 27, 2022

Two Poem Drafts

 Liberty

The stars may walk on paths of light, but I
on dusty roads must take my journey's way;
the winds may run unbound in fields of sky,
no chance have I with zephyrs sweet to play.
The world may have no bars but, strong as steel,
its bonds are forged with endless subtle bands;
the ropes are tight and strong, though none can feel
the tangle of their knots with human hands.
Yet still the heart may higher freedom find;
my thought may soar beyond the shifting air,
my words may touch horizons pure and clear,
and by these gifts all ropes I may unwind.
The world may box me in with loss and care,
but never may it hold my spirit here.


Sunbird

Bright are the flights of feeling.
With unfurled wings faith soars high,
with fire and force it leaps up,
flitting fearlessly in airs.

Casting away all care,
it keeps to its courses;
no one can catch its wings,
no cage may encompass
cries of freedom it calls.

Filled with flame and with hope,
in fierce and fearless joy,
the world falls, with force drops,
and wings now find true flight.

Sunday, June 26, 2022

Ransom and Redemption

 Words related to the practice of ransoming are often found in discussions of Christian redemption ('redemption' being such a word). People seem somewhat skittish about it, however; you find critics, for instance, of 'the ransom theory of atonement'. There is no 'ransom theory of atonement', just a common tendency, rooted in the Scripture and the Fathers, to talk about redemption in terms of ransoming, but it's interesting that people would have such a problem, given that it is easily one of the best-founded ways of talking. We have Jesus, for instance:

For the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve and to give his life a ransom for many. (Mk 10:45 NRSV)

Or St. Paul:

For there is one God; there is also one mediator between God and humankind, Christ Jesus, himself human, who gave himself a ransom for all. (1 Tim. 2:5-6 NRSV)

To take just two obvious ones.

There are also several features of ransoming as a practice that make sense of redemption.

(1) Ransom is an exchange in which there is no right to demand or duty to pay. In ordinary commercial exchanges, I have a commodity or can offer a service by right, then I give you this commodity or service, which creates a duty to pay in you, which gives me a right to demand from you. Ransoming a captive is not a commercial exchange in this way. The captor has no particular right to the person in question; nor does he have a right to offer a person as a commodity; nor does he have the right to offer delivery of the person as a paid service.  If the prisoner were to get away somehow, the captor's rights would not have been harmed by the prisoner. All the captor has, is physical possession. Likewise, the ransomer has no duty to pay the captor. There might be situations where he has a duty to ransom that springs from something else entirely, but it's never going to be a duty to the captor.

(2) Thus the ransoming is grounded not in a duty to pay but in a mercy; there is a reason why ransoming captives is a traditional act of mercy or almsdeed. What grounds the mercy to pay is in fact just the need of the captive. Ransoming is not an act of justice to captors; it is an act of mercy to captives.

(3) However, this does not mean that justice is not relevant here. When the ransomer pays, they do get the right to demand the release of the captive; if a captor receives the ransom payment and refuses to release the captive, this is a further injustice beyond any that may have been committed up to that point. Thus, once the ransom has been given, the captor has a duty to deliver arising from the ransomer's right to receive.

(4) Having been ransomed, the ransomed captive incurs a duty of gratitude to the ransomer as benefactor.

Points at least closely related to all of these are all essential to the Christian doctrine of redemption. God has no duty to redeem us; He acts out of mercy. What He redeems is redeemed, and nothing has a right to interfere with that. And the redeemed have duties of gratitude to their Redeemer.

Perhaps one of the reasons people are skittish with it is the question of the captor. As the Catholic Encyclopedia article has it:

When a captive is ransomed the price is naturally paid to the conqueror by whom he is held in bondage. Hence, if this figure were taken and interpreted literally in all its details, it would seem that the price of man's ransom must be paid to Satan. The notion is certainly startling, if not revolting. Even if brave reasons pointed in this direction, we might well shrink from drawing the conclusion. And this is in fact so far from being the case that it seems hard to find any rational explanation of such a payment, or any right on which it could be founded.
We can already be clear on one point -- there is no right on which it is founded. Captors have no right to either the captive or the payment; they just have the captive.

A somewhat stronger argument is given by St. Gregory Nazianzen (Oration 45.xxii):

We were detained in bondage by the Evil One, sold under sin, and receiving pleasure in exchange for wickedness. Now, since a ransom belongs only to him who holds in bondage, I ask to whom was this offered, and for what cause? If to the Evil One, fie upon the outrage! If the robber receives ransom, not only from God, but a ransom which consists of God Himself, and has such an illustrious payment for his tyranny, a payment for whose sake it would have been right for him to have left us alone altogether.

But any shame would be on the part of the captor, not on the part of the ransomer or the ransomed. St. Gregory of Nyssa in his own discussions of ransom, argues that the fact that we are voluntarily complicit in our own oppression means that justice prevents us from being simply torn away by force; thus God instead takes a different route (Catechetical Oration c. 22):

[N]ow that we had voluntarily bartered away our freedom, it was requisite that no arbitrary method of recovery, but the one consonant with justice should be devised by Him Who in His goodness had undertaken our rescue. Now this method is in a measure this; to make over to the master of the slave whatever ransom he may agree to accept for the person in his possession.
We might put the point a little more broadly than this, by noting that even though the captor has no right to demand payment, there can still be reasons why ransom would be better than forcible liberation, and one of those reasons is that it might be better for the captive. And just as the police might pay a ransom in order simultaneously to free a captive and catch the captor in a legal bind, so, St. Gregory of Nyssa thinks, God has done in our case (Catechetical Oration 23):

The Enemy, therefore, beholding in Him such power, saw also in Him an opportunity for an advance, in the exchange, upon the value of what he held. For this reason he chooses Him as a ransom for those who were shut up in the prison of death. But it was out of his power to look on the unclouded aspect of God; he must see in Him some portion of that fleshly nature which through sin he had so long held in bondage. Therefore it was that the Deity was invested with the flesh, in order, that is, to secure that he, by looking upon something congenial and kindred to himself, might have no fears in approaching that supereminent power; and might yet by perceiving that power, showing as it did, yet only gradually, more and more splendour in the miracles, deem what was seen an object of desire rather than of fear. Thus, you see how goodness was conjoined with justice, and how wisdom was not divorced from them.

This is sometimes called "the fishhook" because St. Gregory later goes on to compare this to God baiting a hook and catching the devil with it. He makes clear that this is in a sense a kind of turnabout: the devil caught us by baiting a trap, the semblance of good baiting the hook of evil, so God catches the devil with another baited hook, taking advantage of the devil's greed for more. God gives the devil a taste of his own medicine (and, in fact, St. Gregory uses exactly this imagery, noting that both a doctor and a poisoner may use the same drug because what matters is the use to which it is put).  The imagery, of course, comes from Job 41:1, in a rhetorical question contrasting what a man can do and what God can do: "Can you draw out Leviathan with a hook?" The imagery was quite popular among the Fathers.

Essentially the same account, however, can be found without the fishhook in St. Irenaeus (Adv. Haer. 5.1.1):

And since the apostasy tyrannized over us unjustly, and, though we were by nature the property of the omnipotent God, alienated us contrary to nature, rendering us its own disciples, the Word of God, powerful in all things, and not defective with regard to His own justice, did righteously turn against that apostasy, and redeem from it His own property, not by violent means, as the [apostasy] had obtained dominion over us at the beginning, when it insatiably snatched away what was not its own, but by means of persuasion, as became a God of counsel, who does not use violent means to obtain what He desires; so that neither should justice be infringed upon, nor the ancient handiwork of God go to destruction.

What happens if you accept God as payment in order to release something to which you had no particular right? You now have an infinite debt, and the one who paid has an infinite right to demand, one about which you have no right at all to complain.

This is, of course, in no way a complete account; it's just sufficient to make sense of why we can talk about Christian redemption in terms of ransom. It's often said that St. Anselm rejects the 'ransom theory' in Cur Deus Homo, but in fact the character who raises the objection in that work (which is essentially the one raised by Catholic Encyclopedia) is not Anselm but Boso, and it's clear in Anselm's response that St. Anselm takes his discussion of satisfaction to fill the gaps in talking about the redemption in terms of ransom, rather than replacing such talk altogether. And so it would be with any other account.

Saturday, June 25, 2022

The Dobbs Decision

 As everyone who hasn't been living under a rock knows, yesterday Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization was formally decided. The decision was over the constitutional status of Missouri's Gestational Age Act (2018), which restricted abortion to (1) gestation prior to 15 weeks, (2) medical emergency, and (3) fetal abnormality. The state was sued by a clinic that had been doing abortions up to 16 weeks. The Supreme Court ruled 6-3 that the law was constitutional and 5-4 to overturn Roe v. Wade and Planned Parenthood v. Casey, thus returning the matter to the states. It is not, I think, an accident that the basic structure of the majority opinion argument follows that of a recent majority opinion written by Ruth Bader Ginsberg, Timbs v. Indiana (2019).

What will happen next, we don't know. One reason Roe lasted fifty years despite the obvious problems with it and the need to keep tweaking it with other court cases, like Casey, was that its basic idea was an equilibrium-point between the pro-choice and pro-life movements as they then existed, and because of that it seemed almost immutable for a long time. What the new equilibrium will be, is yet to be determined. We're going to have a period of scrambling, for a few reasons:

(1) Some anti-abortion laws were never taken off the books. Abortion was a crime in all fifty states when Roe was handed down, and had been for almost a hundred years. After Roe, some states removed the laws from their codes, and some never bothered to do so. This is, I think, a good example of how thinking that a court "strikes down" laws is potentially very harmful. Courts are not legislatures, and they do not have after-the-fact veto power. When a court declares a law unconstitutional, it doesn't erase the law, it merely impedes its effect -- it can't be implemented. But if the law is not removed by the legislature and the decision declaring that it was unconstitutional is reversed, the law comes back into effect. There are states (Michigan seems to be one, for instance) in which politicians will be rushing actually to repeal or replace laws that they had been treating as no longer existing.

(2) Some states passed 'trigger laws' in case Roe was overturned. All of these are suddenly coming into effect, and states will have to adjust in order to implement them.

(3) Some states will polarize in inconsistent ways. As far as public opinion goes, states are all over the place. What will happen is that some states with restrictive laws will make their laws stricter, now that Roe no longer blocks them, while some states with permissive laws will make their laws more permissive to compensate for stricter states and to signal that they are in favor of a right to abortion. In some cases, this will bounce around quite a bit in the usual dynamic of controversial questions at the state level, as state legislators discover what their constituencies are willing to accept.

In the long run, however, I suspect it will have less of an effect than most people expect; Roe was not the only factor in the controversies, by any means. Abortion rights organizations will develop workarounds -- in fact, are working on doing so right now -- and will almost certainly be very well funded in doing so. Given the geographical distribution of the current laws, and the fact that crossing state borders is fairly easy today, my guess is that maybe ten percent of abortions will be seriously impeded by restrictive laws, and most will in fact be unaffected at all. A lot depends on how long the current make-up of the Supreme Court stays in place. New laws will sprout up in unpredictable ways, and state courts may well find ways to cram a right to abortion into some provision or other of state constitutions. (In some states, like Florida, abortion rights are already a part of the state constitution as it has been interpreted by the courts.) But in any case, it's possible that we are in for a quarter-century at least of a non-Roe regime.

Friday, June 24, 2022

Dashed Off XV

 Reid on intrinsically social operations of mind (social intellectual powers): EIP 1.8; EAP 5.6

For there to be anything sometimes, there must be something or other always; for there to be anything somewhere, there must be something or other everywhere; for there to be anything possible, there must be something or other necessary; for there to be anything permissible, there must be something or other obligatory.

consensus sanctorum arguments (cp. Vatican I on consensus patrorum)

Hume on promises as an argument against social contract theory

Marxism assumes the necessary separation of capitalist and worker, but it is possible for the same person to be capitalist, rentier, and worker.

In sharing common good, we see ourselves as greater than we otherwise could, because we see ourselves as in some sense including others.

kinds of argument: whole to part (deduction), part to whole (induction), part to part (example), associated to associated (enthymeme).

Rights are, so to speak, shares in common good.

the posterior partiality of utilitarianism
utilitarianism, the official ethics of colonialism

money as an instrument of justice (facilitation, compensation, and reparation)
-- this is a reason why misuse is often so serious

persona vs brand

Praise is a way we participate in the actions of others.

Acting justly and working for justice are distinct things and sometimes come apart in startling ways.

acroamatic vs exoteric modes of philosophy

"the intelligent mind of men is certainly formed to know" Zhu Xi, on Great Learning 5

Book of Rites (Li Yun 3): the rules of propriety (1) represent the ways of Heaven and (2) regulate human feelings
(Li Yun 29): "The rules of propriety are for man what the yeast is for liquor."
(Jiao Te Sheng 47): "Sacrifices were for the purpose of prayer, of thanksgiving, or of deprecation."
(Yue Ji 10): "Similarity and union are the aim of music; difference and distinction, that of ceremony. From union comes mutual affection; from difference, mutual respect."
(Yue Ji 11): "Music comes from within, ceremonies from without. Music, coming from within, produces stillness; ceremonies, coming from without, produce elegance."
(Yue Ji 14): "Music is the harmony between heaven and earth; ceremonies reflect the orderly distinctions of heaven and earth."

Rosmini: Aristotle's categories only divide the formal cause; they do not consider the other three as such.

intelligibility, activity, durability, intrinsic order

Rosmini on divine imagination: Theosophy 462-466

real, ideal, moral // efficient, exemplar, final

Marian intercession as purest case of intercession of saints, the latter converging on the former

Wis 14:14 -- idolatry comes about through the empty-headedness of men

Bede's Ecclesiastical History is significant in part for being the first developed missiological account of the Church.

It is noteworthy in both East and West that the impulse of empire was first to iconoclasm.

two modes of oikonomia (Quinsext canon 102): akribeia (strictness), synetheia (customary usage)

The role of icons in conversions has been extensive.

ceremonies as books for the nonstudious

Regulating icons and relics is the primary ordinary way in which the Church keeps veneration of saints within orthodox bounds.

"The icon is said to be a door, which opens our mind, created after God, to its inward likeness to the archetype." Stephen the Deacon, 'Life of St. Stephen the Younger'

"Notice that through Moses and Peter, the fathers of both Testaments, is signified a unity between kingship and priesthood, since one is called a priestly king and the other is called a royal priest." Innocent III

One of the implications of II Nicaea is that the Eucharist cannot be merely an icon.

icons as discipline of memory and desire

Most of the good in life is unearned.

Wisdom 12:3-18 on the conquest of Canaan

Not possession but record is nine-tenths of the law.

'Education' covers both artificial and natural causes.

T 1.3.12.20 (SBN 139) can be flipped into a reductio

All monastic and clerical reforms, even the most successful, are only partial successes.

mystery : action :: sacrament : sign

the human body as natural signifier, as naturally apt to signify

aliens and UFOs as pictures of the scientific uncanny, the uncanny aspects of scientific progress

(1) the aliens want to study us
(2) the aliens us their advancement to conquer us
(3) the aliens use their advancement to steal our resources
(4) the aliens us their advancement to destroy us
(5) the aliens regard us as too inferior to consider
(6) the aliens are us, changed beyond recognition
(7) the aliens want to help us in ways we don't understand

Justice is not rendering what is deserved but rendering what is due; the two overlap only for a narrow range.

Troeltsch's conception of the essence of religion (cp Heidegger)
(1) psychological (matter): mysticism
(2) epistemological (form): a priori of religious reason
(3) historical (union of matter and form)
(4) metaphysical (relation to all else): the religious as principle of all a priori

regularities in nature -> laws of nature -> divine ideas

Ryle: "Misunderstanding is a by-product of knowing *how*....Mistakes are exercises of competencies."

We associate joy with excellent youth and peace with excellent age; love, ever ancient and ever new, is a fontal plenitude from which both joy and peace spring.

faith : hope : love :: love : joy : peace

mathematical functions as abstract conditional dependencies
limits as numbers defined by indefinite sequential requirements

Kant's highest good argument
(1) The highest good is the union of happiness and virtue.
(2) Moral reason imposes a duty to promote the highest good to the utmost of our capacity.
(3) Ought implies can.
(4) Therefore, moral reason posits that the union of happiness and virtue can be achieved.
(5) The union of happiness and virtue can in actuality only be achieved if something like God exists.
(6) There are no rational demonstrations that God cannot exist.
(7) Therefore, in fulfilling duty, one is acting according to reason by positing God's existence.
--- Kant takes hope to be concerned with happiness; the idea with (1) is that duty and hope in convergence are concerned with our highest good.
--- NB that (4) does not imply that the union can be achieved by us on our own.

"There is a God: for there is in moral-practical reason a categorical imperative, which extends to all rational world-beings and through which all world-beings are united." Kant (OP, AA 22:105.1-3)
-- In OP Kant keeps arguing that human duties practically speaking have to be conceived as divine commands. (also by ought implies can: OP AA 22.121.13-21)

What counts as a surprising result in inquiry is determined by the structure of the inquiry, not by the feeling of surprise, although the former may be apt for causing the latter.

Elements by which sin becomes locked in:
(1) the temptation itself
(2) exploration and experimentation with the sin
(3) secrecy and privacy
(4) encouragement by others
(5) reasoning that, really, it is good
(6) being recognizably in the same boat with others

Pariotism without civil religion becomes branding-kitsch.

bonsai as symbols of tradition

We directly experience some things as represented (image and object together), and the continued existence of some things we sense as independent from other things we sense, including our own bodies, which we recognize as not wholly independent of us, but united to us, as expressing us.

relics, icons, orders of patronage
relic : index :: icon : icon :: order of patronage : symbol

Christ and mediation of disjunctive transcendentals
In Christ, prior being becomes posterior being; independent being becomes dependent being; necessary being becomes contingent being; absolute being becomes relative being; being simply becomes being after a fashion; being for its own sake becomes being for another; essential being becomes participated being; actual being becomes potential being; simple being becomes composite being; immutable being becomes mutable being; yet in each case without ceasing to be, without confusion, without mixture, without loss.

three elements of indulgences: authority of Church, communion of suffrages, work and devotion of the penitent
-- require an increase of charity, contrition, and devotion
-- two benefits: remission of past debt, medicine against future sin

kinds of indulgenced acts (may overlap)
(1) specifications: particular forms of penance the Church wishes to encourage
(2) substitutions: particular acts that the Church chooses to take as penance in place of ordinary penances

the treasury of merits as the formal cause of remission of penalty in indulgences
the keys and the power to apply the treasury (historically this is linked specifically to the Petrine Commission)
it is linked with the 'key of jurisdiction', not the 'key of order'

prayer as part of every common good

Euler derives "A body remains in a state of absolute rest, unless it is disturbed to move by some external cause" from PSR; and he uses PSR as one of the reasons for "A body having uniform absolute motion will always be moving, and with the same speed now that it had at any earlier time, unless an external cause should act on it or have acted on it" (the other is the impossibility of coming to rest or emerging from rest on its own, based on the fact that it could then increase or decrease on its own); he also uses it to conclude that "The body with a given absolute motion shall progress in a straight line, or the distance that it describes shall be a straight line."

Nothing can be counted unless it is first divided from other things.

Human nature is intrinsically apt to be represented by physical signs.

Is 56:4-8 and the eucharist as sacrifice

hierarchia as the structure of redundantia

truth of art, i.e., true to productive goal

explanation of natural processes by analogy to art/skill (as if they were art/skill)
(1) art/skill as loose model (pure analogy)
(2) art/skill as sharing the essential features with nature (genus-sharing)
(3)  art/skill as sharing essential features with nature (art/skill adapting the actual natural process in part)

The bishop of Rome shares in the Petrine ministry by office; other Patriarchs share in it by communion with the bishop of Rome.

All waters stirred get muddier; sometimes you must let the topic settle a bit.

the world as the chora, Christ as the demiurge, the Church as the cosmos