Saturday, January 07, 2023

Dashed Off I

As always, dashed-off notes, usually from about a year ago, occasionally to be taken with a grain of salt.


The true emergency powers in any good constitution must lie with the people. 

Lumen gentium says that the bishop has "the fullness of the sacrament of orders", that they are "the higest degree of the priesthood and that priests are united with them in sacerdotal dignity, being one priesthood with them."

"Never, in peace or war, commit your virtue or your happiness to the future." C. S. Lewis

Monetary value is always based on requirement; negotiation, contract, competition, speculation, fractional reserve, etc., then build on top of this. Fiat currency works first and foremost by governments instituting situtations that require it (like taxes and fees).

The crucifix is a totem in Durkheim's sense -- indeed, more properly so than more typical totems.

persons as having intrinsic potential for consecration

societas civilis // koinonia politike

It is never prudent to be a fool, but it is sometimes prudent to seem one.

rights and the moral commons

Clothes are something we do other things by.

'People' has three elements (Aquinas, Beata gens): numerous multitudes ("one or two do not make a people"), ordered distinction, harmonious unity.
-- based on Aug (Civ Dei 19.31): A people are an assembly of the multitude united together by consensus of right/law in association of utility, populus est coetus multitudinis juris consensu utilitatis communione sociatus.

Sensory information already comes to us with menaing.

Something can be functionally money just by customs of exchange; 'currency' adds to 'money' a performative declaration of monetary status.

"Every individual *implies* or *presupposes* society by the very foundations of his being." Constance Naden

a danger of social media: training people in pettiness

The miracles of saints are little pictures of grace.

A unified community requires some standard of decency.

One cannot adequately talk about humane excellence without drawing on religious vocabulary.

A market always occurs under some kind of protection.

argument as communication : conception as act :: argument as communicable : conception as object

A common error in persuasion is to assume that arguments move as moving causes, when in reality they 'move' as objective causes, like templates or recipes.

All reading involves some filling-in-of-gaps based on a larger context.

weakly interacting and strongly interacting ideas

the commemorative hierarchy of the liturgy
-- commemoration in the Divine Liturgy is not something the priest does on his own

There is a grave danger of confusing being devout with faking sainthood.

The heart of a republic is its common and public memory.

kinds of subordinate end
(1) contributing constitutive (component end of superordinate end)
(2) contributing nonconstitutive (end that is distinct means to superordinate end)
(3) noncontributing nonconstitutive (symbolic, proxy, substitute)

(1) The human person has an intrinsic tendency to unite other things under the aspect of good to himself, to make them in some way his own.
(2) This owning, which includes more than mere commodity-owning, participates the features of the person, because it in some sense makes other things part of the person.
(3) Because the person is incommunicable, the owning is in some way exclusive.
(4) Because the person has personal identity through time, this owning has some kind of perpetuity.
(5) Because the person is one, this owning is in some way unified.
(6) Because the person is free, this owning is in some way open to activity without definite limit.
(7) A person's own being in some way part of the person, the person has a right to their own, an own-right pertaining to the fact of owning and having the same characteristics.
(8) There are many different kinds of owning, and thus different kinds of own-right, each based on rational reflection on that particular fact of owning.
(9) That which is one's own in some way is had as belonging to one, a possession that may be physical, moral, juridical, etc.
(10) That which is our own is in some way there for us to be able to draw on in our actions.

American hegemony, like the imperial power of Augustus, is built on the *nonseizure* of a vast number of powers that people are convinced to allow the United States to exercise, in acts of rule without the name of rule.

rights as rational faculties for acting
perversions of rights

"Considered in general, competition through honest means is a natural right relative to all kinds of earning." Rosmini

constitutive vs demonstrative signs of consecration

The grace we receive in this life must be the first step toward being a new creation, an anticipation and sign of it.

The becoming of civil society is for life; the being of civil society is for good life.

The People, as an authoritative body, have an inherent right to execute laws, suppress insurrections,a nd repel invasions.

quality, reaction, mediation

"Personality essentially involves the capacity for rights and constitutes the concept and the basis (itself abstract) of the system of abstract and therefore formal right. Hence the imperative right is: 'Be a person and respect others as persons.'" Hegel

tending rites as the basic hieratic act

(1) sacrality in the abstract
(2) personal sacrality
--- (a) properly
--- (b) by extension
(3) communal sacrality
--- (a) familial
--- (b) associational
--- (c) ecclesial

sacraeprudentia // jurisprudentia

Everything has an implicit capacity to be a sacral sign.

The two primary sources of multicultural society are empire and trade.

As need gives less ground to argue, people invent new grounds for arguing.

"The greatest gifts are often seen, in the course of nature, rained by celestial influences on human creatures; and sometimes, in supernatural fashion, beauty, grace, and talent are united beyond measure in one single person, in a manner that to whatever such an one turns his attention, hi severy action is so divine, that, surpassing all other men, it makes itself clearly known as a thing bestowed by God (as it is), and not acquired by human art." Vasari (on Leonardo)

Personal 'authenticity' is often just a story in one's head.

final causation a precondition of objective causation (indeed, all extrinsic formal causation)

the title to the hoped-ofr, the proof of the unseen

Sex does not reach its proper form until it is an act of justice to the other, an act of mutual justice.

In a sense, God does not accept us, because we have nothing to give Him that is not already His; He has no need to receive us, for He is not lacking us, although we may lack Him. It is we who need to accept God.

iconodoulia and respect for the image of God in humanity

There are situations, at the extremes of enmity especially, in which there is no way to be just to one's enemies without loving them.

the Holy Virgin as the pinnacle of Holy Israel

No politics is adequate unless it provides the conditions for civic friendship throughout civil society.

the Myth of Judgment as a picture of philosophy

Being a subject and being an object are not incompatible.

thinking of sunyata as openness rather than bare emptiness

Stupidity, like wrongdoing, is something of which one may repent.

All major sacraments require authorization (or jurisdiction) set by either law or authorizing act, but some sacraments have a wide authorization by divine or ecclesial law. This is the point at which authorization and institution are related; and that connection means that authorization of the right sort is essential to the sign. Major sacraments are not any arbitrary signs; they are authoritative signs.

Authority is carried by rites, transferred by rites, reshaped by rites.

Aquinas on the Immaculate Conception
Sent 1d44q1a3ad3: "Such was the purity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, who was exempt from both original and actual sin."
ST 3.27.2ad2: "IF the soul of the Blessed Virgin had never incurred the stain of original sin, this would be derogatory to the dignity of Christ, by reason of His being the universal Savior of all...The Blessed Virgin did indeed contract original sin, but was cleansed therefrom before her birth from the womb."
Exp. sal. ang.: "For she was most pure because she incurred the stain neither of original sin nor of mortal sin nor of venial sin."

"Love is the epitome of all theology." Francis de Sales

Nobody wills to pursue pleasure or to avoid pain simply and without qualification.

"Every man is by the frame and structure of things, possessed of some right or property, which cannot be violated without pain or injury to him." Susanna Newcome

Being nasty to the tax collector is not being compassionate to the poor.

The human control of fire is a cooperative and communal control.

We understand being better than we understand intellect.

The second Agrippan mode falsely assumes that nothing can be known except as a conclusion, that nothing can be known as a principle.

The union of matrimony is simultaneously natural, moral, legal, and sacral.

In sacramental marriage, the spouses participate Christ's Passion spiritually, thereby uniting the conjugal union as a sacral order to Christ, and thus constituting the domestic church and making the marriage a sign of the union of Christ with His Church.

The family is both proto-city and proto-church.

Ignatius, Ep ad Polycarp, c. 5: Christian marriage should be with the approval of the bishop, that it may be according to the Lord.
-- note that this seems, in how it is expressed, to be bene esse rather than esse.

All friendships by nature exclude relationships inconsistent with themselves, for instance, relationships constituted by betraying one's friends to their enemies.

strengthening an argument
(1) intrinsic
-- (a) logical
-- (b) evidential
(2) extrinsic (other argument)
-- (a) confirmational
-- (b) analogical

The distinction between subjective right and objective right is not well-formed.

the free citizen and the ius contradicendi (cp St 2-1.58.2 00 the possession of ius contradicendi distinguishes from the slave)

natural, neutral, and violent applications of rights formulations

law as the exemplate of ius

individual freedom vs the common freedom

All democracies depend on public festivals, feasts, and holidays for civil unity.

A genuine right protects the whole community.

Anger is often a means we use to protect ourselves from shame. We would usually rather be angry than ashamed.

The person of equity allows for imprecisions of law and is satisfied with less than his due in such cases (Aristotle, EN 1137-1138).

Friday, January 06, 2023


 Today is the feast of the Epiphany of Our Lord Jesus Christ, although liturgically the United States celebrates it on Sunday.


I heard the preacher speaking,
and of miracles I heard,
the wine of revelation
from the water of our words.
I heard of men and women
in humility of ways
transfigured to the glory
of the Ancient One of Days
(first river-bathed and lustral
in the waters of the earth,
then drunken, full of Spirit,
with the Wine of heaven's birth),
of wisdom-seeking sages
who had sought the Good by star
and found it with its Mother
where the Jewish peoples are,
the True in swaddled clothing --
thus their wise philosophy
was turned, like wedding-water,
to that wine, epiphany.

Feast of the Glorious Epiphany

Are You not, O Lord, the Way,
through whose bright lustral waters
we become children of God,
those in whom He is well pleased?
And are You not He, O Lord,
by whose light the nations came
to find their great salvation
and rejoice to know their King?

By You, forgiving Ember,
the waters were filled with light,
for in Your light we see light,
and are illuminated.
In the river called Jordan
one God was manifested:
the Father declared His Son
with the Spirit upon Him.

Christ was born and was baptized
that we might be saved by Him;
that simple creature, water,
was exalted to serve God.
None can enter the kingdom
save by water and Spirit,
save by being adopted,
being washed in the Jordan.

Today the waters are blessed,
set aflame with holiness;
our leprosies are thus healed
by the salvation of God.
The grace of God dawns on us
for holy lives of justice,
that we may be set apart
and seek to do noble deeds.

Star of Bethlehem

My Cousin, God, and King,
my myrrh and frankincense
and gold I bring to give,

my treasure and worship
and human sympathy,
an offering complete.

With threefold gift I kneel,
with threefold heart I pray,
after too-long journey.

I looked for signs and saw
Your sign, drawing to You,
the language of heaven.

I asked for wise counsel,
consulted prophecies,
and so I came to You.

Reason and human aid
have lit the path like stars
that I may give my gifts,

until this rough stable,
this unexpected throne
of an ox's manger,

an end I had not thought,
and You, to whom I pray,
my Cousin, God, and King.

Thursday, January 05, 2023

Generalizing the Argument from Evil

  In studying arguments, it is often worthwhile to think about the most general form of the argument you are considering, as well as the general family of arguments of which it is a part. This often makes structural features more clearly; it can also point out problems or difficulties an argument might have that are common features of a whole family of arguments. This is particularly useful, I think, with the argument from evil.

Transcendentia or transcendentals are terms that are not confinable to a category; in a slightly stricter sense, the term is used to indicate terms that are not confinable to a category because they are coextensive with being, which is the generally considered the most conceptually fundamental transcendental term. Scotus, following a line of thought in Bonaventure, notes that there are divisions of being that are transcendental in this sense as divisions; the particular disjuncts are not transcendentally coextensive with being (although they may still be transcendental in the slightly broader sense of transcending any given category), but disjunctively they are. These are often called 'disjunctive transcendentals' today. Examples are one/many, infinite/finite, absolute/relative, dependent/independent simple/composite. necessary/contingent, true/false, and good/bad. There are many, many more.

The disjuncts of such transcendentals are in some sense opposed to each other, although the exact nature of the opposition can vary quite a bit (because there many ways you can divide being). The cases we'll be interested in are cases in which the opposition is at least purportedly exclusive, in the sense that the disjuncts are positive contraries. The premise in arguments from evil, of course, is always some version of the idea that good excludes bad; if we speak metaphorically, they 'push each other out'. The reasons given for this kind of exclusion vary a lot; in terms of basic structure, this does not matter, but arguing over these reasons makes up the greater part of almost any discussion of an argument from evil.

For our purposes, we also want cases in which the opposition has a particular sort of asymmetry, which traditionally was described as an asymmetry of 'nobility'. One of the disjuncts is what we would call higher, better, superior, whether this indicates that it is in some way more fundamental. In the case of arguments from evil, of course, good is treated as the nobilior disjunct. Pinning down an exact account of nobility in this sense is a tricky bit of metaphysics, but for our purposes, we can take the nobilior to be the one that is most obviously the kind of thing that is suitable for God.

Arguments from evil generally tend to make identifying the nobilior disjunct easier by cross-fertilizing disjunctive transcendentals. A very common way of doing this is to combine the good/bad transcendental with an infinite/finite transcendental. Thus, the arguments usually oppose not good and bad simply (which would give us a possible argument from evil, but one that would take an immense amount of argument to defend), but infinite good and at least finite bad. This doesn't fundamentally change the nature of the argument, but this cross-fertilization makes both the exclusive and the asymmetric opposition of the disjuncts much more vividly plausible. One might hem and haw over whether good is more fundamental than bad or whether good excludes bad as a contrary, but many people will assent immediately to the claim that infinite good is superior to and excludes merely finite bad.

Given all of this, we can characterize an argument from evil in the terms we have been using. The most general form one finds is:

(1) Some things are bad.

(2) Good would be more fundamental and opposed to bad.

(3) Therefore, there is no good.

This in its bare form is obviously not a popular one. More common would be a cross-fertilized kind, e.g.,

(1A) Some things are at least finitely bad.

(2A) Infinite good would be more fundamental and opposed to at least finite bad.

(3A) Therefore, there is no infinite good.

But, again, we could cross-fertilize good/bad with more, or with other, disjunctive transcendentals than infinite/finite, e.g.,

(1B) Some things are at least contingently bad.

(2B) Necessary good would be more fundamental and opposed to at least contingent bad.

(3B) Therefore, there is no necessary good.

In practice, though, there are other ways in which this basic argument-form might be varied. First, we might specify it to a particular domain (instead of talking good/bad in general, we might talk about natural, moral, intellectual, etc. good/bad). Second, we might break down the division in finer ways using some other distinction (e.g.,, we might want to make a distinction between gratuitous and nongratuitous bad). Third, we might treat the opposition as probabilistic rather than necessary (as is done in what are commonly called 'evidential arguments from evil'). 

Recognizing all of this, however, we can identify a general family of arguments that would work along the same lines of an argument from evil; that is, we can generate a large number of atheistic arguments. For instance:

Contingent beings exist; necessity would rule out contingency; therefore no necessary being exists.

Finite beings exist; infinite being would rule out finite being; therefore no infinite being exists.

Diverse, plural beings exist; being that is properly one would rule out diversity and plurality of being; therefore no being that is properly one exists.

Some things are potential; pure actuality excludes potentiality; therefore nothing is purely actual.

Some things are at least contingently false; necessary truth excludes at least contingent falsity; therefore nothing is necessarily true.

Composite things exist; simplicity would rule out composition; therefore no simple being exists.

Some things are relative; if something were absolute, it would exclude relativity; therefore there is nothing absolute.

We could, again, multiply these indefinitely. We certainly do find some of these arguments occasionally given (sometimes varied in the ways noted above), which we can take as confirmation that we are identifying the family correctly.

The most useful thing we gain by identifying the general family of an argument is seeing more clearly what problems and weaknesses it shares with the rest of the family; these usually indicates problems that are not really eliminable no matter how one tries to adjust the argument. When we look at the kinds of argument we get in generalizing from the argument from evil, we find that all such arguments have at least two immediate related problems, both of which arise for arguments from evil in general.

I. The disjuncts in such transcendentals are often not in fact opposed as contraries but as positives and privatives. Thus exclusion premise in such cases is false. The opposition between the disjuncts in disjunctive transcendentals is often (and perhaps always) one of privation, not contrariety. The less noble disjunct is distinguished from the more noble simply in lacking something that the more noble has. If this is the case, then the question of why the less noble exists in a given case is simply that something required for the more noble is missing; it arises from a defect, and not from some positive exclusion.

This is related to another, less obvious problem, which is that all arguments of this form treat a perfection or example of the nobilior as ruling out defective causes. But in general there is no reason to think that (e.g.) necessity in one thing rules out something being a source of a defect of necessity in another thing. 

In the case of the argument from evil, arguing for the relevant kind of exclusion regularly runs into problems if we accept that (a) badness as such is merely a privation of good or (b) some causes are good that nonetheless can be sources of a lack of good in other things. (Both of these claims are in fact generally held, the latter especially in the case of free will, although there are other things, like corruptible or defectible goods, that can be used.) Similar problems arise, however, with other arguments in the family.

II. The less noble participates the more noble, being unable to exist without the nobler, so actually proves the existence, not nonexistence, of the nobler. That is to say, the asymmetry, while necessary for directing the argument in one direction, also works against the argument. We can sum it up in what might be called Scotus's Rule: 

Positing the less noble in some being, we can conclude the more noble in some other being.

In the case of the argument from evil, the argument will always run into the difficulty that (on certain common accounts of badness) the existence of bad implies at least the existence of good, and, if one accepts Scotus's Rule in the case of infinite-good/at-least-finite-bad, the existence of infinite good. One could, of course, reject Scotus's Rule, but the point is that every argument from evil, as well as all the other atheistic arguments generated, can be turned into an argument for God's existence in this way.

Again, these problems will tend to be ineliminable. They are answerable, in that you could bite the bullet with each, arguing for a positive theory of evil, or rejecting possible defective causes, or denying the participation accounts that give one something like Scotus's Rule. But, given the structural issues, what this means is that these are really the points on which the acceptability and cogency of the argument from evil hang.

Wednesday, January 04, 2023

A Finite Worship Cannot Be to Thee

by Margaret Cavendish 

Eternal God, Infinite Deity,
Thy Servant, NATURE, humbly prays to Thee,
That thou wilt please to favour Her,
and give Her parts, which are Her Creatures, leave to live,
That in their shapes and forms, what e're they be,
And all their actions they may worship thee:
For 'tis not onely Man that doth implore,
But all Her parts, Great God, do thee adore;
A finite Worship cannot be to thee,
Thou art above all finites in degree:
Then let thy Servant Nature mediate
Between thy Justice, Mercy, and our state,
That thou may'st bless all Parts, and ever be
Our Gracious God to all Eternity.

This is from her Philosophical Letters. A number of features of this poem reflect Cavendish's philosophical interests and are discussed elsewhere in her philosophical works: the repeated emphasis on parts (Cavendish's natural philosophy is heavily focused on mereology); the mediatorial role of Nature; the notion that all of Nature worships God; the emphasis on infinities.

Tuesday, January 03, 2023

And Sweet Is Sweet

by Francis Thompson 

Go, songs, for ended is our brief, sweet play;
Go, children of swift joy and tardy sorrow:
And some are sung, and that was yesterday,
And some unsung, and that may be to-morrow. 

 Go forth; and if it be o'er stony way,
Old joy can lend what newer grief must borrow:
And it was sweet, and that was yesterday,
And sweet is sweet, though purchas-ed with sorrow. 

 Go, songs, and come not back from your far way:
And if men ask you why ye smile and sorrow,
Tell them ye grieve, for your hearts know To-day,
Tell them ye smile, for your eyes know To-morrow.

Monday, January 02, 2023

Two Pillars

 Today is the feast of Saints Basil the Great and Gregory Nazianzen, Doctors of the Church. From Basil's On the Holy Spirit (Chapter 9):

Now the Spirit is not brought into intimate association with the soul by local approximation. How indeed could there be a corporeal approach to the incorporeal? This association results from the withdrawal of the passions which, coming afterwards gradually on the soul from its friendship to the flesh, have alienated it from its close relationship with God. Only then after a man is purified from the shame whose stain he took through his wickedness, and has come back again to his natural beauty, and as it were cleaning the Royal Image and restoring its ancient form, only thus is it possible for him to draw near to the Paraclete. And He, like the sun, will by the aid of your purified eye show you in Himself the image of the invisible, and in the blessed spectacle of the image you shall behold the unspeakable beauty of the archetype. Through His aid hearts are lifted up, the weak are held by the hand, and they who are advancing are brought to perfection. Shining upon those that are cleansed from every spot, He makes them spiritual by fellowship with Himself.

From Gregory's Oration 45:

It is now needful for us to sum up our discourse as follows: We were created that we might be made happy. We were made happy when we were created. We were entrusted with Paradise that we might enjoy life. We received a Commandment that we might obtain a good repute by keeping it; not that God did not know what would take place, but because He had laid down the law of Free Will. We were deceived because we were the objects of envy. We were cast out because we transgressed. We fasted because we refused to fast, being overpowered by the Tree of Knowledge. For the Commandment was ancient, coeval with ourselves, and was a kind of education of our souls and curb of luxury, to which we were reasonably made subject, in order that we might recover by keeping it that which we had lost by not keeping it. We needed an Incarnate God, a God put to death, that we might live. We were put to death together with Him, that we might be cleansed; we rose again with Him because we were put to death with Him; we were glorified with Him, because we rose again with Him.

Sunday, January 01, 2023

Three New Poem Drafts and a Poem Re-Draft

The Gladness of God

All minds rest in gladness;
but though our minds must range
through desirings and change,
God just rests in gladness.

All minds will their best act:
highest work, good possessed,
right object sweetly held,
make for the purest meld,

but God acts divinely,
possessing Himself well,
more good than we can tell;
God just rests in gladness.

The glad have all they wish;
nothing is left lacking.
God is complete and best;
thus God in God does rest.

Free of sorrow's madness,
God just rests in gladness.

Of Amber

The gray of sky is weeping on my heart,
a mist of whispered worries curls and twists,
turning and rising as it lists;
here it recombines, but there curls part.
The sun through gray is muted, full of sighs;
the ray that wished to radiate, instead in sorrow dies,
with melancholy blanket hiding heart,
a heart that through the bleak and chill now flies
on wings that frost with ice;
the sky is gray, the song is minor, flat, and crushed by sighs.

The sun still shines with warmth and glow,
the wings of light still dive and dart,
but all is veiled as if by freezing rain and snow,
as if there were a cloud upon the heart.


I wish I knew how to mock you;
then I would know how to love you.
For whenever I try to love you,
your faults show the need to mock you
to get over them in order to love you;
but I know not how to mock you,
so can only wish to love you.

Finally, Rain

How bizarre; the ground is wet
with water from the sky!
What catastrophe can make
the world break down and cry?
Or what compassion, pure and true,
can equal tears of cloud?
These tears the fallen will renew
and overthrow the proud.

O little men of little faith
and kings of golden crown,
repent and tremble at your fate:
the sky is falling down
and heaven weeps with sobbing tear,
and cries with thunderous cry,
while you, un-Noah, ply your trade,
no ark made ready by.

But you who labor in the field,
and you in arid land,
the sky its love has sent to you:
it freshens earth and sand.
Rejoice, oppressed of all the earth,
rejoice, O pure of mind!
The rain falls down. What more to say?
The world is newly kind.

Fortnightly Books Index 2022

 Because of scheduling weirdness throughout the year, it was a light year for the fortnightly book, as well, with more skipped weeks and three-week 'fortnights' than usual. But a lot of interesting things were covered. Of works that I had not read before, I really liked The Tale of Sinuhe, The Mayor of Casterbridge, and Camilla.

November 20: Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged
Introduction, Review

November 6: R. B. Parkinson (ed.), The Tale of Sinuhe and Other Egyptian Poems
Introduction, Review

October 23: Dorothy Sayers, Striding Folly
Introduction, Review

October 2: J. R. R. Tolkien (with Christopher Tolkien), Unfinished Tales
Introduction, Review

September 18: Thomas Hardy, The Mayor of Casterbridge
Introduction, Review

August 28: T. H. White, The Once and Future King
Introduction, Review

August 14: Jaroslav Hašek, The Good Soldier Švejk
Introduction, Review

July 17: Arkady and Boris Strugatsky, Roadside Picnic; The Inhabited Island
Introduction, Review

July 3: David Taylor, Farewell to Valley Forge
Introduction, Review

June 12: Josephus, The Jewish War
Introduction, Review

May 22: Baroness Orczy, The Scarlet Pimpernel; I Will Repay; The Elusive Pimpernel; The League of the Scarlet Pimpernel
Introduction, Review

May 8: William Goldman, The Princess Bride
Introduction, Review

April 17: Umberto Eco, The Mysterious Flame of Queen Loanna
Introduction, Review

April 3: Snorri Sturluson, The Prose Edda
Introduction, Review

March 13: Henryk Sienkiewicz, Quo Vadis
Introduction, Review

February 27: Dorothy Sayers, Murder Must Advertise
Introduction, Review

February 13: Oscar Wilde, Short Stories
Introduction, Review

January 30: Madeleine L'Engle, The Time Quartet
Introduction, Review

December 5: Francis Burney, Camilla
Introduction, Review


Fortnightly Books Index 2021

Fortnightly Books Index 2020

Fortnightly Books Index 2019

Fortnightly Books Index 2018

Fortnightly Books Index 2017

Fortnightly Books Index 2016

Fortnightly Books Index 2015

Fortnightly Books Index 2014

Fortnightly Books Index 2012-2013