Experimentation arises out of the cycle of abstract and concrete.
The whole power of the state is less than the whole power of the civil society that uses the state to organize itself and to have effects on other societies.
providential sovereignty -> popular sovereignty -> crown sovereignty
What a king can do, a whole people can do.
'mutual and reciprocal intercourse, influence and communication of qualities' between Christ's natural body and His social body
allegiance (liege homage) to the state vs obedience to the state
-- these are often confused in modern societies, but a state has a (defeasible) right to allegiance from just lordship in fulfilling its customary duties to vassals, whereas a state has a (defeasible) right to obedience from customary power or mastery over subjects.
-- both should be distinguished from the civil responsibility of a citizen to cooperate with the state in matters of civil good
master - servant - compliance
lord - vassal - customary due
state - citizen - rational cooperation
All jurisdiction in the Church is exercised in Christ's name, and all authority derives from Christ's commission, with no action violating that commission having any authority. It is His juridical authority exercised in ecclesiastical court and His eleemosynary authority exercised in the tribunal of mercy.
chieftainship powers as based on the attentions of the people
-- note that this is not weak (it is in fact a precondition for a great many other things) but is minimal in its general form, since it can be in place even when people reject your decision. It is in its essence an advisory power, capable at times of immense effect, but only when and to the degree sufficient portions of the people follow your advice. It gives you a power to propose, to mediate, and to influence.
The association of sovereignty with territory is a feudal relic.
In the long run we are all destroyed by the things we do not respect.
As shadows are byproducts of, and dependent on, light, so obscurities are byproducts of, and dependent on, understanding.
"He who studies Philosophy must be a freeman in mind." Henry Dunning Macleod
Wealth consists in exchangeable rights. (Macleod)
"If a bill is taken in exchange for goods, it is *Payment*: but it is not *Satisfaction* until the bill itself is paid." Macleod
"...though giving Money is *Payment*, it is not *Satisfaction* until the Money is exchanged away for something that is desired."
"*Satisfaction* is anything which is received as a final Discharge and closing of any transaction."
"A Banker is a trader whose business consists in *Buying Money* and *Debts* by *Creating* other *Debts*."
jurisprudence : rights :: economics : exchanges of rights
"To counterfeit misery is to be miserable." Aristotle
Stories become more interesting in juxtaposition with other stories.
Judicial decisions are concerned almost entirely with classification.
Every tribunal that is constituted as a court in a complete and proper sense has a power to designate and punish contempt of court, or something similar, arising from its authority over its own proceedings. Custom, of course, may modulate how and by what means this can be expressed, as may statute.
In the Life of Alexander, Plutarch distinguishes histories and lives, arguing that hte latter pays more attention to marks and indications of human souls, their vices and vicrtues, than exploits.
At their peaks of power, wisdom, or goodness, human beings get tutelary attributions and sometimes quasi-religious or even religious honors, from their fellow human beings.
modalities of the episcopal power of jurisdiction
(1) broadly moral: linked to divine license to preach the word received; can reach to all rational beings.
(2) jural: linked to office with respect to the Church as a society.
(3) sacral: linked to episcopal modality of character with respect to the Church as Mystical Body; this is the ambience of things subserving the power of order.
priesthood: the power to offer and consecrate the Divine Host
diaconate: the power to distribute
subdiaconate: to prepare the matter and the sacred vessels
acolyte: to care for the altar and the lights
exorcist: to keep out unworthy and free the possessed
lector: to proclaim the word of God and assist the hearer in understanding
ostiary: to guard the property of the House and to assemble the faithful
--> all of these are found in a more eminent way in the power of the bishop
An advantage of the idea of minor orders is that i more clearly delineates the authority of the priest who sums them all in complete integration.
All who receive the sacrament of orders are formed into one body.
The minor orders pictured the sacrament of orders as itself a temple.
It is natural to think of the character as 'in' us, but one may also think of it, perhaps more spiritually and accurately, as something into which we and the whole Church are brought. This is true of baptism, confirmation, and ordination. It is an important element in understanding sacramental character that, the character in us, we become the Church (in the mode of our character) for all others in the Church. To receive baptism is in a way to receive the Church in oneself, and so too in different ways with confirmation and ordination. For the sacramental character, which is a participation of Christ whose sacramental Body we all together are, is a way in which we are each in each and all in each as members of that Mystical Body.
Christ is our Temple and the sacramental character is the Temple in us.
The character reflects the Church in a given mode.
Cyprian Ep. 27: the Church properly consists of Bishops, Clergy, and the Standing (i.e., those who are not Lapsi in the face of persecution)
1 Cor 14:19 (cp. Lk 1:4, Acts 18:25, Rm 2:18; Gal 6:6) -> catechumenate
the structure of the ancient catechumenate
(2) Substrati (postratores)
-- (1) and (2) were not always distinguished; when they were, (1) was allowed to hear the Christian message in church itself, (2) received regular blessing. (3) were allowed to call themselves Christian.
The Church can, if it deems fit, create a minor order for any element of temple-service in the divine liturgy.
Reason can as it were only see the moral law from its underside; faith lets us begin to see it in the round; only in the Beatific Vision will we truly asee it as it is.
Exactly the same thing may be spoken with very different levels of authority -- indeed, very different kinds of authority.
Eveyr removen prohibens has a specific prohibens (we could call it a kibosh), which is an act of opposition that has to be removed.
Governments give room to protest, and even incite it, to make themselves seem more democratic -- protests are flashy things to which one can point to prove one's liberal character.
Our personal good consists in frameworks of common good within which our individual good distinctively develops.
Everything in either belongs both to the sciences and the humanities, but in different ways. (Cp. Mach)
the collage of ideas in the imagination
The human body becomes the human body by becoming the site of moral problems and moral resolutions.
All formal heresy is an attempt to seize grace on one's own terms.
hagiosyne (1 Thess 3:13)
hosiotes (Lk 1:75; Eph 4:24)
the double aspect of sanctity: withdrawal or separation for the divine & seal or sanction by the divine
The virtue of religion becomes sanctity to the extent it organizes all other virtues.
Common law provides a middle ground wherein statute and custom can beneficially interact.
Exectuive branches are as inherently precedential as any court system.
"The employment of speculative men, since the beginning of the world, has been to investigate the causes of things." Reid
"As all credit supposes an equivalent debt, so all right supposes a corresponding duty."
"Without fidelity and trust there can be no human society."
"...if no provision were made by nature, to encourage men to fidelity in declarations and promises, human nature would be a contradiction to itself, made for an end, yet without the necessary means of attaining it."
testimony: theoretical reason :: promise : practical reason
the existence of other minds as posited by our social intellectual powers
The two essential elements in effective leadership are, within the framework of the requirements of leadership, to share in the burden and to care for the people.
Interculturality preserves cultural elements.
The Son of Man sayings are sometimes said by Jesus as if the Son of Man were Himself and sometimes as if the Son of Man were another; this is reconciled in the doctrine of the second coming.
four family rituals in Imperial China
(1) initiations (cappings and pinnings)
(4) service to ancestors
two forms of merit
(1) causes a right in justice to a reward
--- (a) in commutative justice
--- (b) in distributive justice
(2) causes a disposition appropriate to receiving a reward
In the Incarnation, God takes a special responsibility for the human race, as He had taken a special responsibility for Israel in the electino of Israel.
Merit mediates agent and reward by giving a ground of imputation of reward to agent.
"a benefit is repaid by being acknowledged." Seneca
"that which is seen is not a benefit -- it is but the trace and mark of a benefit"
"What, then, is benefit? It is the act of doing a kindness which both bestows pleasure and gains it by bestowing it, and which does its office by natural and spontaneous impulse.
"...a benefit exists, not in that which is done or given, but in the mind of the doer or giver"
"He who receives a benefit with gratitude, repays the first instalment of it."
"That benefit which consists of the action is repaid when we receive it graciously; that other, which consists of something material, we have not then repaid, but we hope to do so."
"A benefit gives perpetual joy to a grateful man, but pleases an ungrateful one only for a moment."
"A benefit is subject to no law; it depends upon my own arbitration."
formal beneficia vs instrumental beneficia
The problem with using 'favors' to translate Seneca's 'beneficia' is that you can owe, trade, bank, and repay in favors. Favors are useful services, but not with respect to gratitude as such.
The rights between spouses are not the same but reciprocating.
painting & the hierarchy of interest
-- relevant to the picturesque, which also finds a hierarchy of interest
-- Gilpin's 'roughness' is an indirect marker of the hierarchy of interest in the scene.
The wergild system worked in part because it covered the bases for punishment: the perpetrator had to engage in a public symbolic act that recognized that the misdeed was wrong, that the person harmed was of value, that the kind o fthe person harmed had been harmed, and that the peace of the king (or sometimes the church) had been violated; there was compensation; wergild amounts were set deliberately high so that perpetrators would typically have to go into debt to pay, thus requiring penal sacrifice. But wergild was also not the only system involved, because it coexisted with other systems (e.g., in later times with the penitential system).
Usury is a usurpation of rights, because interest is a right requiring specific title in light of justice; but usury is taking interest without the relevant kind of title.
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