Advertisements work by culture-building rather than any direct influence. This suggests that effectiveness is affected by conspicuousness, diversity of contributions to a specific cultural thread (e.g., recreation or athletics), and memorability.
Utilitarianism, by its nature, gives the violent the power to determine morality (through violent consequences).
self-rule for Christ as royal aspect of Confirmation
self-offering to Christ as priestly aspect
confession of Christ as prophetic aspect
the blank page as sign of possibility (cp Peirce)
Cyril of Jerusalem explicitly analogizes Real Presence in Eucharist to Real Presence in Chrism (Myst 3.3).
Eucharist & unction are both pledges of hope in resurrection.
As Christ is two-natured, divine and human, so the Eucharist is two-natured, heavenly and earthly (Irenaeus, Damascene). Therefore the two should not be confused or mingled (consubstantiation) or changed into each other (impanation), or separated from each other (memorialism). This corresponds to blocking monophysitism and the notion that Jesus is mere man. Transubstantiation would correspond to blocking Nestorianism.
The miracles of Christ are quite specific -- he does many of them because asked, and the others are all concerned with teaching.
the internal goods of an inquiry
'A priori methods', over all, actually work quite well; they generally suffer, properly applied, only due to the limits of human ingenuity and imagination, and provide at least a good first approximation within those limits. All those disparaging 'intuitions about space and time' due to later discovery are overlooking the role of such 'intuitions' in that discovery -- indeed, their ongoing role even given the corrections raised by discovery.
Talk of 'folk theories' is part of a folk theory of ideas.
Treating law as a part of psychology tells you almost nothing about law. While occasionally a Legal Realist will come up with something interesting, doing so seems to have less to do with the approach than with the ingenuity of the person, and reading through texts of Legal Realists is an extraordinary exercise in being unenlightened -- especially since Legal Realists do not seem to do the actual empirical work that would be required to follow through on their promissory notes (a trait they share with their Quinean cousins in epistemology). This is unfortunate given that there is a genuine (albeit modest) role to play in this field for serious empirical study of causes.
On Alf Ross's theory of utterances, Boo! should be counted as a directive and not an exclamation because it involves intent to influence without representation.
Contrary to Alf Ross, the primary rules of chess would have to be assertions in his sense, not directives; they represent what is counted as a particular piece-move relation (for instance) and are not themselves put forward to influence (contrast with, say, chess advice). They describe the game. They are specifications. Directives only enter in with morality, in a broad sense -- cheating and fairness and playing appropriately. his claim that the wish to cheat always involves an external goal is in fact itself a reason to think his analysis of chess is wrong.
The socially binding character of a rule is not a matter of introspected feeling.
Like all naturalisms, Legal Realism has difficulty establishing closure in a way consistent with itself.
The will of the people and the sanctity of human life are not things that should have to be 'balanced'.
That some claim is classified as a probability in and of itself indicates that the claim is a conclusion. Probabilities of claims are not themselves axiomatic.
"The confession of evil works is the beginning of good works: You are doing the truth, and coming to the light." (Augustine)
Who lacks a sense of sin, lacks a sense of gift.
Evangelization is storytelling.
"What can be circumscribed can also be taken as a model for the image that is drawn." Theodore the Studite
"Things here are signs; they show therefore to the wiser teachers how the supreme God is known; the instructed priest reading the sign may enter the holy place and make real the vision of the inaccessible." Plotinus Ennead 6.9
design as a deontic concept
deontic logic as a logic of design
the Mediocre Man approach to history
"It is saying nothing to say that fear invented the gods of most people. For fear, considered as such, does not invent anything; it simply awakens the understanding." Herder
Kant's classification of theistic arguments:
(1) concept of the possible
(1.a) to existence as consequence: ontological argument
(1.b) to existence as ground: the only possible ground argument
(2) empirical content of existent
(2.a) to cause with attributes appropriate to God: cosmological argument
(2.b) as God: teleological argument
Kant takes the 'I think' of rational psychology to involve an analogue of the ontological argument. (Thinking is what cannot be thought otherwise than as subject; it therefore exists as subject.) He does not, however, do much with this. But the parallel:
(1) concept of thinking thing
(1.a) therefore existing as consequence
(1.b) therefore existing as ground
(2) sense of myself
(2.a) therefore there is a cause, of a sort to be myself
(2.b) therefore I exist
To think and reason is to affirm possibilities.
aesthetic feeling as the intellectual 'sense' of willing and reacting
In the long run, the liturgy is doctrinally self-correcting.
In metaphyhsics, as elsewhere, use provides the method. There is no method, no way, until one already knows how to go.
The possibility of the unity of reflective experience requires a free cause.
NB Kant's reference to 'the famous ontological *or Cartesian* proof' (B630).
Gabriel: Baptism; Michael: Eucharist; Raphael: Reconciliation
COP #466: "The Mystery of Holy Anointing is performed collegially, by the prayer of the whole Church...."
Correlation connects to causation only when one recognizes it as an effect, which requires being able to ask whether it is accidental.
Whatever may be the case, some kind of whatever must be.
One source of variation in liturgical custom is the difference between a tightly bound culture (small communities, active distinctive self-awareness, people staying in a parish much of their lives) and a loosely bound culture (large, highly mobile, very generic shared cultural customs). For instance, chrismation of infants makes sense in a tightly bound culture; as it loosens, however, a later chrismation begins to make more sense.
German idealism : systematic :: German romanticism : eclectic
One can destroy creatively; one cannot blindly copy creatively.
fallacies of division and composition in analogical inference
"Whatever is artificial is creation in imitation of what is natural; for, in fact, nothing would be called artificial if it were not preceded by something that is natural." Theodore the Studite
The character sacraments establish that there may be icons of Christ, and their diversity that no icon may exhaust His glory.
analogue (resemblance), analogy, analogy-system
sign to object: by causation, by resemblance, by imposition
sign to interpretant: sensible, sensible-intelligible, intelligible
interpretant to object: anticipative (constructive), presential, memorative
vestigial resemblance, imaginal resemblance, similitudinal resemblance
that, what, why causal inferences
artifical (arbitrary), convergent, natural representation
Outside of mundane and regular courtesies, you should not volunteer yourself for things you do not actually want to do. (It is different if you are asked and there is a real need.) Outside of mundane and regular courtesies, you should not apologize in response to someone's demanding an apology to themselves, but you should also not apologize unless you are actually sorry. The reason is the astounding number of people using volunteering and apology as means of benefiting themselves to the harm of another. One should be generous with one's time, one should be ready to repent, but one should do so in a way that linkes to real need or mutual benefit, not to enabling manipulation by others.
Note that while the anti-Thomism is not his focus, Palamas's first letter to Akindynos is concerned with what Barlaam says in the course of attacking Thomism in the fifth anti-Latin treatise.
revelation as the manifestation of divine energies to us; deification as the manifestation of divine energies in and through us
Every nature is expressive.
"No being is composed of its own act." Palamas
essential union: Trinity :: hypostatic union : Christ :: energetic union : Church (Sacrament)
Divine energies are not mere second intentions; nor are they real parts; nor, indeed, properly any kind of parts at all. Having said this, one has wholly exhausted the question of what kind of distinction there is between essence and energies, barring direct revelation, because of the principle of remotion.
Udayana's list of oppositions to theism
(1) belief that there are no nonsensible causes
(2) belief that nonsensible causes do not require that God exists
(3) direct arguments that God does not exist
(4) opinion that God cannot be source of knowledge even if existent
(5) belief that there is a lack of arguments that prove that God exists
"All effects must have a cause since they are occasional, like the gratification produced by food." Udayana (in Cowell)
sacrifices -> merit -> superintendent of merit
Vedas -> good testimony is a fact about the testifier -> testifier
NB Udayana's method of going through each of the pramanas to remove objections.
Udayana's theistic arguments:
(1) Karyatvat: The earth &c. must have had a maker because they have the nature of effects; cf. a jar.
(2) Ayojanat: The action of combining two atoms must be from volition of an intelligent being, because it has the nature of an action; cf. actions of bodies such as ours.
(3) Dhrteh & Samharanak: The world depends on the will of a being hindering it from falling, because it has the nature of being supported; cf. a stick supported by a bird in the air. Also, the world is destroyed by a being's will because it is destructible; cf. a cloth that is torn.
(4) Padat: Traditional knowledge, like clothmaking, must have been originated by an independent being because it is traditionary; cf. modern modes of writing.
(5) Pratyaydt: The authoritative character of the Vedas arises from the virtue in its cause, because it is right knowledge; cf. the right knowledge from perception.
(6) Sruteh: The Vedas must be produced by a person because of its Vedic nature; cf. the Ayur-Veda.
(7) Anvayatah: The Vedas must be produced by a person because it involves sentences; cf. the Mahabharata. Or: The vedic sentences must be from a person because they have the nature of sentences; cf. the sentences of beings like ourselves.
(8) Samkhyarisesat: The measure of a dyad is produced by numeration since it is a derived measure not produced by aggregation; cf. a jar of three units being larger than a jar of two. Thus at creation the number two must be recognized by an intelligence other than ourselves, to give twoness to single atoms.
Udayana considers five objections to karyatvat:
(a) Only a body can be a maker, so God would lack the distinctive characteristic of a maker. -- The connection 'having the nature of an effect' establishes the maker regardless of expectations about bodies and makers; and one cannot infer that God is not a maker due to lack of body unless one knows what God is.
(b) There is an absence of a body which has invariable connection to making. -- The adding of 'by a body' to the connection overrestricts and ignores the primary connection, 'produced'.
(c) 'Only one possessed of a body can be a maker' is an opposing universal proposition. -- The connection of being an effect is, unlike corporeality of makers, an attribute of the thing considered, and where you have an effect, you must have a maker regardless.
(d) In all experienced cases, makers have bodies; thus this claimed instance of an incorporeal maker is not known to be possible; which is intensified by the contradiction between 'maker' and 'incorporeal'. -- The logical connection 'effect' itself establishes there is no contradiction, and if it were not possible at all the denial would not be saying anything substantive.
(e) The logical connection is too general, and should be restricted to 'produced by a corporeal agent'. -- The rejection of this restriction has been argued for, and the arguments for the restriction have been shown to fail.
---- In general, the claim, 'If God were a maker, He would have a body' requires that there be a God to know this of, and any defense depending on 'If there is a caused, there is a cause' would already be conceding the argument. Further, the Vedas reveal that this is right: 'I am the origin of all, all proceeds from me' (Bhagavad Gita 1.8). And this cause must be intelligent since the unintelligent produces because of the intelligent; so if the atoms, e.g., produced on their own, this would not be any different from saying that the atoms are intelligent. And analogous considerations arise for the rest.
Udayana also has an interesting line of argument in which all the arguments admit of an interpretation of the Vedas as authoritative: effect is effect in mind (purport) of Veda; combination is explanation, support etc. may mean preservation of tradition and its performance; traditional knowledge may mean words and their reference; authoritativeness may mean the object of the vedas; sentences may mean praise and blame; and particular number may mean first person speaker. All of these arguments, of course, build on the fact that even the atheistic schools regarded the Vedas as authoritative.
No one comes to know truth, properly speaking, who does not commit even to truth that is unknown.